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Ideologies of the 19th century
Transcript of Ideologies of the 19th century
Contributes to the belief of the supremacy of Europe.
Understands progress as the highest achievement, the highest state of any civilization and the result of the improvement of human knowledge.
The development of history can be explained through: thesis, antithesis and synthesis. IDEALISM POSITIVISM August Comte.
Linked to the technological development of the 19th century.
Progress is the only path towards happiness. Progress should be the only goal of all civilizations.
Positivism´s goal is to explain the causes of all phenomena through universal laws. For this ideology, reason is an instrument to undertand how the world works.
Science is the only way to understand reality. The opposite of absolutism.
Liberalism proposes a constitutional government with divided powers. According to Montesquieu scheme, respecting freedom of thought, expression and reunion, equality and the right to vote.
Laws should be created by an elected assembly.
Liberalism took away the privileges of absolute monarchs and the high clergy. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM Laissez faire.
Absolute respect for private property. Economy should be regulated by the market. Law of supply and demand. There should be free trade and free competition. The task of the government is to protect these liberties.
ADAM SMITH (The wealth of the nations)
DAVID RICARDO: Presented the relation between population growth and the need for more food. According to Ricardo, when population increases, labour increases, wages decrease and poverty increases. Then population _____________ and wages ____________. Socialism UTOPIC SCIENTIFIC Appeals to the good will of those with power and who own the means of production. ROBERT OWEN
Business man who prohibited work for kids younger than 10 years old, built schools for worker´s children, reduced the working day and increased wages. Results were surprising: Profits increased!
Owen tried to spread his style but wasn´t successful. Charles Fourier
He wanted a universal system based on harmony among the different social sectors.
Such harmony could be reached satisfying human needs instead of limiting them.
Society should be divided in comunities called: phalansteries. Each one of these composed by one or two thousand people working together either in industry or agriculture.
Everything would be regulated to distribute wealth, rights and duties.
How would work be assigned? Based on skills but it also would be rotated so people would have different interests. Private property would not be abolished but it would be regulated to avoid conflict. End of capitalism caused by the corruption of the system.
Proletariat / Bourgeoisie. Class warfare.
END OF HISTORY Private property is a crime. Means of production and consumer goods must be for everyone.
Proposes the end of the state since it holds excessive power and oppresses the general population.
Society should be organized in small democratic and free groups that would distribute work and its products, eliminating exploitation.
Mijaíl Bakunin aNaRcHism It is based on identity.
Looks for national unity based on collectivity.
Nation is more important than individuals.
Traditions, language, religion, beliefs.
Armed groups defending the nation.
Creation of enemies. http://internacional.elpais.com/internacional/2012/01/09/actualidad/1326120926_644459.html http://internacional.elpais.com/internacional/2012/01/09/actualidad/1326116138_192258.html http://sociedad.elpais.com/sociedad/2011/12/16/actualidad/1324052923_528739.html