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Paraphrase - Contradiction - Entailment

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Aziz Teke

on 28 March 2013

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Transcript of Paraphrase - Contradiction - Entailment

Paraphrase Contradiction Entailment Paraphrase
A. The police chased the burglar.
B. The burglar was chased by the police.
A is a paraphrase of B
B is a paraphrase of A PARAPHRASE

A. The police chased the burglar.
B. The burglar was chased by the police.

A is a paraphrase of B
B is a paraphrase of A What is Paraphrase?

Paraphrase is a restatement of a text in another form or other words, often to simplify or clarify meaning. Paraphrase involves a relation of semantic equivalence between syntactically different
phrases or sentences:

John wrote a letter to Mary.
John wrote Mary a letter. A dog bit John.

John was bitten by a dog. Like synonymy, paraphrase is never perfect;
there are always differences in emphasis
or focus. There are two kinds of paraphrase:

1. Lexical Paraphrase
2. Structural Paraphrase 1. Lexical paraphrase: It is the use of a semantically equivalent term
in place of another in a given context.
This is also known as synonymy.

E.g.,
John is happy. = John is cheerful. 2. Structural paraphrase: It is the use of a phrase or sentence in place of another phrase or sentence semantically equivalent to it, although they have different syntactic structure.

E.g.,

John showed the pictures to me.
John showed me the pictures. Contradiction is a combination of words that seem to be the opposite of each other, with the result that the phrase has no clear meaning. A. Ata is a bachelor. B. Ata is married.
A contradicts B. B contradicts A. Sentence A contradicts Sentence B
if whenever A is true, B is false. X: John is a middle-aged American man.

a. John is female.

X contradicts a,
a contradicts X. X: John is a middle-aged American man.

b. John is a child.

X contradicts b,
b contradicts X. X: John is a middle-aged American man.

c. John is married.

X doesn't contradict C,
C doesn't contradict X. One statement entails another when the second is a logically necessary consequence of the first,
as "Alan lives in Toronto"
entails
"Alan lives in Canada." Note that the relationship of entailment, unlike that of paraphrase, is one-way:

"Alan lives in Canada."
doesn't entail
"Alan lives in Toronto." Many, if not all, assertive sentences (statements, propositions) of a language allow for inferences solely on the basis of their meanings.

For example, when I say "Ben has been murdered", then anyone who has understood this utterance and accepts its truth will also accept the truth of the statement "Ben is dead." A. Lobo is a dog.
B. Lobo is an animal.

A entails B.
B does NOT entail A. Alex and Daianne are happy.

Alex is happy. Alex is happy. a. Every student has finished the homework.

b. Every American student has finished the homework.

Sentence A entails Sentence B. Every student came to class early.
Every student came to class. Now let's finish the presentation with
Venn Diagrams: Internet Resources:

http://www.unc.edu/~moeng/SP12/30%20-%20Semantics.pdf

http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic248905.files/Section%205.pdf

http://www.punksinscience.org/kleanthes/courses/UCY04S/SP/CLASS_01.pdf

http://web.mit.edu/ysudo/www/truthcondition_entailment_contradiction_presupposition.pdf
http://grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/paraphterm.htm MA STUDENTS
Aziz TEKE
Onur KARAGÜL
Full transcript