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Chapter 13 Section 4: The South's People
Transcript of Chapter 13 Section 4: The South's People
Farms and Plantations
The Southern economy was based on
. Most white Southerners fit into four categories:
yeomen, tenant farmers, the rural poor, or plantation owners.
Small Farmers and the Rural Poor
-farmers who did not have enslaved workers-made up the largest group of whites in the South. Yeomen lived mostly in the Upper South and in the hilly areas of the Deep South. Not all Southern whites owned land. Some rented land or worked as
on landlords' estates.
A large plantation might cover several
acres. They measured their wealth partly by the number of
they controlled. A few free African Americans also held
workers. The main economic goal for large plantation owners was to earn
. To receive the best prices, planters sold their cotton to
in large cities, such as New Orleans and Charleston.
of plantation owners took charge of their households. They watched over the enslaved domestic workers and sometimes tended to them when they became
. In addition, they might keep the plantation's
Work on the Plantation
needed many different kinds of workers. They cleaned the house, cooked, did laundry and sewing, and served
, or plantation manager, supervised them.
Life Under Slavery
Enslaved African Americans suffered
. One of their worst fears was being sold to another
and separated from their loved ones. Enslaved African Americans maintained their family life as best as they could and developed a
all their own, blending African and American elements.
Enslaved people had few comforts beyond their bare necessities. American laws in the early 1800s did not protect
. Enslaved people needed some measure of stability in their lives. They established a network of
who made up their extended family.
African American Culture
In 1808 Congress outlawed the
trade. Slavery remained
, or permitted by law, but no new enslaved people could enter the United States.
African American Christianity
For many enslaved African Americans,
became a religion of hope and resistance. The passionate beliefs of the enslaved Southerners found expression in the
, an African American religious folk song
Between 1830 and 1860, life under slavery became even more difficult. The
-the laws in the Southern states that controlled enslaved people-became more severe. One purpose of the codes was to prevent the event that white Southerners dreaded most-the
. Slave codes made it a
to teach enslaved people to read or write.
Resistance to Slavery
Some enslaved African Americans did rebel openly against their owners. One was
. In 1831, he led a group of followers on a
, or short, violent rampage in Southhampton County, Virginia. Turner's rebellion led to more severe slave codes.
revolts were rare, however. African Americans in the South knew they would only lose.
Some enslaved African Americans tried to run away to the
. Getting to the North was
for most enslaved people. The
offered aid to enslaved people who had escaped. Most runaways were caught and returned to their
City Life and Education
The South was primarily
. It had several large cities by the mid-1800s, however, including Baltimore and New Orleans. The ten largest cities in the South were either
Life in Southern Cities
Cities located at the crossroads of the
also began to grow. Among them were Chattanooga, Montgomery, and Atlanta. In the cities, free African Americans had the opportunity to form their own
. Free African Americans' lives were not secure. Their
During this era, no statewide public school systems existed. People who could afford to do so sent their children to
schools. The South was behind other sections of the country in
, the number of people able to read and write. One reason for this situation was the South's
. The South had few people per square mile. In addition, many Southerners believed that
was a private matter, not a state function.