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The Black Death
Transcript of The Black Death
http://www.wadsworth.com/history_d/templates/student_resources/0534600069_spielvogel/InteractiveMaps/swfs/map11_1.html Between 800 and 1200 BCE, global temperatures gradually increased, allowing farmers to grow more food. As a result the population of Europe gradually rose from around 30 million to 75 million. In 1315, temperatures dropped, farms failed to produce enough crops and salt supplies ran out (causing meat to not be preserved). The Black Death Widespread famine occurred throughout Europe from 1315 to 1322. Between 10-35% of the population in Northern Europe will die from disease and starvation Origins of the Plague The Bubonic Plague is caused by the bacterium Yersnia Pestis.
The Bubonic Plague outbreak that would be referred to as the Black Death in Europe is believed to have originated in China during the 14th century. The Golden Horde, a Mongol Army, became infected with the plague in 1346. They used their plague victims as biological weapons against the Genoese Merchants at the city of Kaffa, spreading the plague. From these Genoese Merchant Ships the Plague will travel into Europe. The Plague Comes to Europe The plague arrived on merchant ships from Asia.
The first documented case in Europe was in the port of
Messina, Sicily, in October 1347. When people heard that people had contracted the plague in a nearby town, they would flee.
This actually helped spread the plague. The plague traveled through mainland Europe along trade routes So many people died that the living either could not, or would not, bury all of the dead.-- A mass grave was just uncovered in London, check it out!
Two-thirds of priests died. They were replaced by inexperienced young men, which weakened the power of the church.
Priests were in such short supply that there were not enough to perform last rights on the dying...
Pope Clement VI granted forgiveness of sins to all who died of the plague because of the lack of clergy. People’s negative outlook on life was reflected in the artwork of the late Middle Ages. The plague eventually stopped around 1351 when colder weather killed the rats and fleas, people improved sanitation somewhat.
If you survived the plague, you gained an immunity to it. Overall, between 20 and 25 million people (approximately 1/3) in Europe were killed by the bubonic plague.
35 million people died in China. The plague flared up from time to time through the rest of history, but the death wasn’t on the scale of the Black Death of 1347-51. To Pick Up from Last Year The majority of Europeans practice Feudalism. In this "feudal" system, the king awarded land grants or "fiefs" to his most important nobles, his barons, and his bishops, in return for their contribution of soldiers for the king's armies. At the lowest level of society were the peasants, also called "serfs." In exchange for living and working on his land, the lord offered his peasants protection.
The Middle Ages are also known as the Dark Ages because of the political, social, cultural and economic set backs after the fall of the Roman Empire. Basically, everyone focused on surviving and subjects like art, literature, science, and medicine were ignored.
Most Europeans practice Catholicism. The Catholic Church is a powerful institution by the 14th Century in Medieval Europe. Their influence impacts the lives of everyone because they are able to threaten anyone who disagrees with them with excommunication (which would mean that the person was kicked out of the Catholic Church and shunned). "Tricks" to Prevent the Plague Is the Plague Still Around? The Bubonic Plague will visit parts of Europe, particularly Great Britain throughout the Renaissance and Early Modern Era. The last major outbreak of the plague in Europe was in Marseilles in 1720.
We have medicines to treat the plague but it can still be deadly. In 1994 there was an outbreak in India (700 cases and 52 deaths) Living Conditions Which Made
The Plague Worse What was the Black Death? The Black Death refers to the pandemic (a worldwide outbreak of an infectious disease) that wiped out nearly a third of the world's population between 1347-1351 CE. The Black Death will have three important consequences. These include the end of Feudalism and the Protestant Reformation due to the chaos the plague carried in its wake. Many historians also credit the Black Death with helping spread the Renaissance out of Italy into the rest of the continent Three Types of Plague Effect on the Catholic Church Read more about the plague here:
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-diseases/plague-article/ Buboes Check out this recent discovery by Archaeologists:
http://www.cnn.com/2013/03/15/world/europe/uk-london-skeletons Bubonic plague was the most common form of the disease. This type of plague affects the lymph system, and its name came from the large "buboes," or swollen lumps, that would appear on the neck, groin, and armpits of the victim. The size of the buboes ranged from the size of a hen's egg to the size of a man's fist.
The disease was spread through infected fleas that attached themselves to rats. This form of the disease was painful, but survivable by some. The average life expectancy of an infected host, however, was usually up to a week after the appearance of the buboes. This is the type of plague that most people during the Middle Ages would catch.
Septicemic plague, which spreads in the bloodstream, comes either via fleas or from contact with plague-infected body matter. Pneumatic plague, the most infectious type, is an advanced stage of bubonic plague when the disease starts being passed directly, person to person, through airborne droplets coughed from the lungs. If left untreated, bubonic plague kills about 50 percent of those it infects. The other two forms are almost invariably fatal without antibiotics. Mother Nature's Role in Spreading the Plague People in the Middle Ages thought that water caused diseases so they rarely bathed.
In the cities there was no plumbing so often any waste was dumped right into the street.
Animals and people often lived together especially during the winter. You were never more than 6 feet away from a rat in medieval Europe. Now, imagine how many fleas can live on a rat!
Illnesses were interpreted often as acts of God, so people never thought that their behavior could make them sick. Some people thought that the plague was carried on the air and could be warded off with nice smells so they would carry sweet smelling herbs with them like Rosemary. The citizens of Barcelona in Spain took this one step further by making a giant 7km candle to light.
One group of people in Germany called the flagellants believed the plague was a punishment sent by God so they would trudge from town to town whipping themselves to show how penitent and sorry they were for their sins.
Other people would use one of the most commonly used methods for curing any sort of disease in the medieval period: blood letting.
Drinking molten gold and powdered emeralds were also cures that were tried but would have been only for the rich.
In Scotland people hung loaves of bread from poles and burned them when they molded. They thought the mold meant the bread had "absorbed" the plague. http://voices.yahoo.com/is-bubonic-plague-still-around-today-326772.html This was not the first outbreak of bubonic plague in Europe. There was an outbreak of the Plague in Constantinople in the 6th Century. However, no Christian sources mention the plague after the 8th Century. Historians and scientists believe that the plague often develops among various types of burrowing rodents. It can lay dormant for centuries if these "rodent cities" are left alone by humans. Up to 34 species of burrowing rodents, from Marmots, flying squirrels to rats are capable of carrying the disease. The Golden Horde...
of Rodents? Some historians believe that the Mongol expansion that Genghis Khan started in the 12th century may have disturbed the habitats of rodents as the Mongols conquered territories that stretched from Russia to China.
Yersnia pestis spreads between different rodent populations faster than it does with humans so as the Mongols traveled between Asia and Europe, they brought the bacteria to previously uninfected rodents where it spread for nearly a 100 years before the first "outbreak" An Excerpt from Boccaccio's The DeCameron In the spring of that year the sad effects of the plague nonetheless began to appear in an almost miraculous manner. It was not as it had been in the east, where nosebleeds had signaled that death was inevitable. Here the sickness began in both men and women with swelling in the groin and armpits. The lumps varied in size, some reaching the size of an ordinary apple and others that of an egg, and the people commonly called them gavoccioli. Having begun in these two parts of the body, the gavoccioli soon began to appear at random all over the body. After this point the disease started to alter in nature, with black or livid spots appearing on the arms, the thighs, everywhere. Sometimes they were large and well spaced, other times small and numerous. These were a certain sign of impending death, but so was the swelling.
No doctor's advice, no medicine seemed to be of any help. Either the disease was incurable or the doctors simply didn't know how to cure it. Many tried, though. The number of doctors became huge as a multitude of people, male and female, with no medical training whatsoever took their place alongside those who were properly educated. But no one knew the cause of the pestilence and thus no one could do much about curing it, so not only were few people healed but most of them died by the third day after the aforementioned signs appeared, some a bit sooner or a bit later. Most of them died without any fever or other symptoms.
This pestilence was so powerful that it spread from the ill to the healthy like fire among dry or oily materials. It was so bad that it could be communicated not only through speaking or associating with the sick, but even by touching their clothing or anything else they had touched. What I must say here is so strange that if I and others had not seen it with our own eyes I would hesitate to believe it, let alone write about it, even if I had heard it from trustworthy people. The pestilence spread so efficiently that, not only did it pass from person to person, but if an animal touched the belongings of some sick or dead person it contracted the pestilence and died of it in a short time. I myself witnessed this with my own eyes, as I said earlier. One day when a poor man had died and his rags had been thrown out in the street, two pigs came along and, as pigs do, they pushed the rags about with their snouts and then seized them with their teeth. Both soon fell down dead on the rags, as if they had taken poison. Such experiences or others like them gave birth to a variety of fears and misconceptions among the living, and the cruel strategy they pursued was to avoid, even flee the sick and their belongings. They thought that by doing so they could stay healthy themselves. Here is an excerpt from one of the most famous works of Giovanni Boccaccio, a 14th writer century who gives a gristly description of the plague Need to review feudalism?
http://www.learner.org/interactives/middleages/feudal.html This outfit was believed to prevent the wearer from contracting the plague Historians estimate there were nearly 75 million deaths world wide, but no one knows for sure (lack of records) If you remember the chorus of this song you will always remember how the plague was transmitted! Read more here: Approximate location of Hubei the first province recorded to suffer from the 14th century outbreak of the plague in the 1330s Many people lost faith in the church because even the most religious people were not spared from the plague and the church didn't seem to have any answers. Some of these people will begin to look for an alternative to the Catholic Church which will lead to the Protestant Reformation Fleas on Rats... Bubonic plague can be spread by direct contact with infected tissue or bodily fluids, bites from infected rodent fleas, or inhaling infected droplets in the air. The disease is most commonly spread through the bites of infected fleas. During the 14th century outbreak, it is expected that the majority of people caught the plague from flea bites. The fleas caught the plague from infected rats. These rats, historians believe, hid on merchant ships that left Kaffa and traveled to Genoa in 1347. The bite itself is not what passes the infection, its the vomit of the flea's stomach into the human bloodstream that passes on the plague. Plague's Impact on Feudalism In some areas of Europe the Black Death killed so many people in the same area villages and towns disappeared as survivors ran from the plague--meaning some serfs left their manors and never came back
This leads to a shortage of workers so Lords rent out their serfs at pre-Plague wages, leading to revolts in some areas by 1351. As the 14th century wound to an end, more people took advantages of the labor shortages to move into the middle class--letting feudalism die quietly. The Plague's Impact on the Renaissance The Renaissance begins in Italy after 1350 CE, mainly because of the impact of the Black Death Those who survive the plague end up better off financially and socially, Some now inherit land and property, others resort to looting. There is more food per person in Europe which makes it easier for those at the bottom to begin to move up.
As the peasants found new opportunities now that the wealth per capita in many European countries increased, a middle class developed that would soon be able to afford to spend their additional wealth supporting arts and culture instead of focusing on survival.
The city of Florence, which lost approximately half of their population will become the epicenter for this new revival of art and literature modeled after the achievements of the Classical Era (ancient Rome and Greece). Black Death Music Parody The Human Cost of the Black Death