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American Literature- Time Periods, Movements, Major Writers

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Kelli Candella

on 5 September 2014

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Transcript of American Literature- Time Periods, Movements, Major Writers

American Literature
Modernism
In modernism, loss of control is reflected in characters' actions and the writing itself.
Writing style:
may be fragmented
unclear beginning/end
shifts in point of view

Naturalism
Romanticism
19th century American Literature
Romanticism emphasizes passion, imagination and intuition, and free spontaneous diction. Romanticism is for pleasure, not politics, and can get very personal.
It can have elements of the supernatural and be very emotional.
Transcendentalism
1840-1855
Transcendentalism was an intellectual movement, led by highly educated people.The feelings expressed by transcendentalist writers are intense, the ideas serious, the reflection deep and meaningful. Transcendentalists were attempting to create an American aesthetic, and this is reflected in their language and tone.
The Age of Faith
The Age of Reason
1730-1860
The Age of Reason started during the time of the American Revolution and growth of patriotism. Reason and logic were used, as opposed to faith alone. This time was known as the
Enlightenment.
Writing style: ornate
Types:
political pamphlets
essays
travel writing
speeches
articles

1865-1915
Characters are from the lower-middle class or lower class, and are usually poor, uneducated, and unsophisticated. Throughout the literature they go though raw, unpleasant experiences and be at the mercy of biological and socioeconomic forces.
Realism
1865-1915
Realism authors portray life in a realistic way without "sugarcoating" anything because they wanted to "write reality."
Humans have some degree of free will that they can exercise to affect their situations.
1914-1945
Standards:
ELACC11-12RL9:

Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and early twentieth century foundational works of American Literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes on topics.
ELACC11-12RL1
cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain
ELACC11-12L1
demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
Major Writers:
Thomas Jefferson: Declaration of Independence
Thomas Paine: Common Sense
Benjamin Franklin
Colonialism
1607-1800
Before it all started. . .
communicated orally
myths and legends
focused on nature and mostly creation stories
Contemporary
two phases:
pilgrims & religion
patriots & politics
People were beginning a new century and new millennium.
Writing Style:
mix of fantasy and non fiction
heroes/anti-heroes
detached/unemotional
1945-present
Abigail Adams
Major Writers:
Major Writers
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
Major Writers
Stephen Crane
Jack London
Major Writers

Writing Style:
short stories
novels
poetry
Sub-Genre
Gothic Literature
use of supernatural
characters had both good and evil characteristics
Writing Style:
Had elements of horror!

Authors like Edgar Allan Poe had dark and depressed characters.
Writing Style:
novels
short stories
aimed to change a specific social change

The Harlem Renaissance
was a black cultural movement that emerged in Harlem in the 20's.
Major Writers:
Langston Hughes
Countee Cullen
Claude McKay
Music, art, and literature flourished
Age of Faith Vs. Age of Reason
Devoted to preparing for a world to come
Devoted to this world and its pursuits
Divine- God centered world
Man-centered world
Live, breathe, and sleep the Bible
Use scientific experiment to achieve results
God appointed individuals as either "saved" or "damned"
God's special gift to humanity is reason- the ability to think in a logical way
The "elect" should exert greater influence on government
Leadership by the those who are the best regardless of class
Realism
Both are "basic" views of life and humanity
Naturalism
Regionalism
God is absent in both writings
Honest, authentic representation of life
Focused on the middle-class and its problems in a specific area
Believed that the representation of life is important
More exaggerated
Focused on the major drama.
favored the lower-class for its character, violence, and taboo themes.

Believed that nature itself is an
indifferent force
Poetic Forms
Though many transcendentalist writers used the essay form to express their ideas, some writers used poetry, specifically free verse.
Walt Whitman
More Poetic Forms
While she doesn't exactly fall into the category of the Transcendentalists, she was well-regarded by Emerson
Emily Dickinson
Ernest Hemingway
F.Scott Fitzgerald
John Steinbeck
Art Overtime
Harlem Renaissance
Romanticism
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
by: Jonathan Edwards
1607-1750
Writing Style: plain, like the Geneva Bible
diaries
sermons
histories
letters
William Bradford
Johnathan Edwards
Anne Bradstreet
Edward Taylor
Religion dominated their lives and writings. Puritans used writing to expore their inner and outer lives for the signs of the workings of God.

Washington Irving
Nathaniel Hawthrone
Edgar Allen Poe
Herman Melville
Naturalism
The Civil War
Frederick Douglass
Harriet Beecher Stowe
1860-1865
The Frontier
1865-1915
Mark Twain
Stephen Crane
Jack London
Regionalism
1865-1902
Bret Harte
Kate Chopin
Willa Cather
Drama
Tennessee Williams
Arthur Miller
20th Century Poets
Ezra Pound
T.S Elliot
E.E Cummings
Robert Frost
Carl Sandburg
1915-1929
The term naturalism describes a type of literature that attempts to apply scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to its study of human beings.
Beat Writers
pre-hippie, highly intellectual, anti-tradition
countered the hidden despair of the 50's with wildly exuberant language and behavior

Key Figure:
William S. Burroughs
Novelist, essayist, poet
pen name= William Lee
A beat writer is a journalist who reports on an issue or a particular sector over time.
Naked Lunch
Confessional Poets
Sylvia Plath
Anne Sexton
Robert Lowell
J.D. Salinger
James Thurber
Multicultural Literature
Jewish American:
African American:
Native American:
Latino-American
Asian-American
New Frontiers
John Updike
Truman Capote
Joyce Carol Oates
New Frontiers
Stephen Crane
Carrie: The Book
Carrie: The Movie
Carrie is slightly overweight with long, dirty blonde hair and many pimples.
Carrie wipes out most of the town on her rampage after the school prank.
The people at the prom are actually laughing at Carrie when the the blood is dumped on her
Chris and Billy hear about the fire from their friend are are trying to leave town when they see Carrie. She causes their car to crash into the road house, killing them.
They are driving from the prom and they try to run Carrie over. She flips the car, causing their deaths.
It is only in Carrie's imagination that everyone is laughing at her when the blood is dumped on her at the prom
The damage is limited to her school.
The story is framed through police reports and other documents.
It is a normal story.
She is thin and has clear skin.
Bernard Malamud
Elie Wiesel
Ralph Ellison
Maya Angelou
Gwendolyn Brooks
Alice Walker
N.Scott Momaday
Louise Erdrich
Julia Alvarez
Sandra Cisneros
Maxine Hong Kingston
Amy Tan
A man said to the universe:
"Sir, I exist!"
"However," replied the universe,
"The fact has not created in me a sense of obligation."
--Stephen Crane (1894)
"Europeans did not find a wilderness here; rather, however, involuntarily, they made one. Jamestown, Plymouth, Salem, Boston, Providence, Philadelphia--all grew upon sites previously occupied by Indian communities. The so-called settlement of America was a resettlement, a reoccupation of a land made waste by the diseases and demoralization introduced by the newcomers."
-Francis Jennings,
The Invasion of America
(1975)
Time Periods, Movements, Major Writers
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