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History lesson plan

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Ritchie Burrows

on 2 September 2013

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Transcript of History lesson plan

The Cold War
Video Part 1 Reflection
Video Part 2
Key Points from Second Half:

- America in support of free democracies

- Churchill (future British PM) - 'strangle the infant bolshevik in the cradle'

- Stalin disallows free elections in favour of communist governments in areas under Russia control

- Atomic bomb used upon Japan
From World War to Cold War
The Cold War
Student Activity
5 minutes

Write down everything you know about the Cold War.

For example:

Who was involved?
How were the opposing sides different?
What made this war a 'Cold' war?
How did it start?
Why were they fighting?
Winston Churchill
A War-time Prime Minister.
Responsible for the infamous Gallipoli Campaign in World War I.

Opposed to Hitler and Nazi Germany in the 1930s.

Almost single-handily kept Britain in the war against Germany. Famous for his speeches.

A famous post-war speech he made was the "Sinews of Peace" speech made Fulton, Missouri 1946.
Key points so far:

- Conflict between Democracy and Communism

- America & Britain on one side
Soviet Union (Russia) on the other

- Communist gain power in a Revolution 1917
Excerpt from "Sinews of Peace" Speech
...It is my duty [...] to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe.

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.
Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them
lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.

The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to pre-eminence and power far beyond their numbers
and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control. Police governments are prevailing in nearly every case, and so far, except in Czechoslovakia, there is no true democracy.
"Sinews of Peace" speech
Discussion questions:

What is the Iron Curtain?

What lies on the East side of the Iron Curtain?

What effect did the Iron Curtain have on politics in the countries behind it?

Why might this speech be important?
Europe 1946
British Prime Minister 1940-1945
Harry S. Truman
Was the Vice-President until the incumbent, Roosevelt, passed away.

Presided over the end of the Second World War and the start of the Cold War.

Authorised the use of the Atomic bomb on Japan, twice.

Gave American aid to rebuild European countries devastated by the world war.
President of the United States 1945-53
The 'Truman Doctrine' speech
The 'Truman Doctrine' Speech presented to Congress on 12th March 1947.

In this speech Truman advocated America's intervention in world affairs.

World War 2 had devastated Britain's economy, they were withdrawing their financial aid from Greece and Turkey.

Greece was in the midst of a civil war against communist insurgents. Turkey was under political pressure from Soviet Russia.

America forced to act to protect against communist aggression / or intervening in European affairs?
Group Activity
Groups of 3.
Approx. 5 minutes per question.

Read the excerpt from the 'Truman Doctrine' speech and write down the answers to the following questions.
First section:

1. Are the totalitarian regimes forced or popularly elected?

2. Why are they against the totalitarian regimes?
(According to the text)
The Truman Doctrine
Cold War Documentary

'Sinews of Peace' Speech
Key Points from the Video
Europe devastated by war. Eastern Europe under an ‘Iron Curtain’.

While Russian dictator did not have the Atomic bomb, they did have a massive army in Europe.

Democracies in Europe feel threatened by the threat of Communism.

Initially Truman eager to have peace. Tires of compromising with the Soviets though.

Stalin – declares Communism and Capitalism incompatible. Two opposing camps.

Conflict defined in restricting Communism spreading in Greece and Turkey.
Background to the Speech
We shall not realize our objectives, however, unless we are willing to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes. This is no more than a frank recognition that
totalitarian regimes imposed upon free peoples, by direct or indirect aggression, undermine the foundations of international peace, and hence the security of the United States.

The peoples of a number of countries of the world have recently had totalitarian regimes forced upon them against their will.
The Government of the United States has made frequent protests against coercion and intimidation in violation of the Yalta agreement in Poland, Rumania, and Bulgaria. I must also state that in a number of other countries there have been similar developments.

At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life.
The choice is too often not a free one.
One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.

The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.

I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
Group Activity

Second section:

3. Why must every nation make a choice?

4. Identify the two ways of life mentioned in the speech. What are their characteristics?

5. What does Truman support doing?
Who was Truman?

What was the 'Truman Doctrine' speech?

What was Truman trying to achieve?
Full transcript