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Transcript of Mao Zedong
The CCP formed a coalition with the reorganized Kuomintang Party (KMT) [Nationalist Party] with Mao as the coordinator of the policies of both parties.
Chinese Communist Party
Method of obtaining power
Born into a peasant family on December 26, 1893 in Shaoshan, Hunan, China
Mao became one of the fifty founding members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), which rose in 1921.
The outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937 united the nation, and, in effect, the KMT and CCP (“in name only”).
Treatment of Religious Minorities
Use of Propaganda
Mao founded the People’s Republic of China (PRC) on October 1, 1949 and Chiang Kai Shek fled to Taiwan
After working for a brief time in the Peking University library in 1918, Mao returned to Hunan and began editing revolutionary magazines, organizing trade unions, and setting up schools oriented towards communism.
Return to Hunan
However, his lack of academic education and social status led the coalition to send him back to Hunan.
From this, Mao discovered the revolutionary potential of the extremely discontent, poor peasants, many of whom were mistreated by their warlords.
From that point on, Mao concentrated his appeal to the vast underprivileged lower class of poor peasants and farmers.
As a result, Mao played a significant leadership role in the peasant movement led by the KMT and CCP, and in 1927, proposed that the poor peasants be given the most important positions.
Mao was left in charge of a small, rural soviet in the Ching-kang mountain base area between Kiangsi and Hunan, where he relied on the support of the poor peasants.
Chiang Kai Shek’s anti-communist purge in 1927 led the communists to split up and flee.
Due to CCP fears that soviets would disrupt the unity of the revolutionary movement, strong soviet leaders such as Mao were stripped of their power.
Mao lost control over his trained army, his position in the soviet party, and his power in the soviet government.
Chiang Kai Shek succeeded in driving communists out of their bases along the Long March (a 6,000 mile journey through the Shensi hills that took a year to travel)
This helped to eliminate other communists who might have challenged Mao for the leadership position.
However, after the end of WWII, a civil war broke out between the KMT (Nationalists) and the CCP (Communists), and the Communists emerged victorious under the leadership of Mao.
Mao grew in popularity by creating a personality cult. His ideas were written into the constitution of the Communist Party of 1945.
As a result...
Mao reorganized the CCP through his organized army and Red Guards (young students).
Mao used the Cultural Revolution as a way to maintain power by re-asserting his control and authority over the people of China.
Purged China of ‘impure’ elements (eliminated all opposition within the Communist Party)
Sought to reignite the revolutionary spirit
½ million people died
Chinese cultural heritage eliminated
By Sept 1967, many cities were nearly in anarchy
Mao sent in his army to suppress them.
Mao felt threatened by other members of the Communist Party and feared that he would lose his leadership role and power within the Communist Party & China.
Encouraged youth to openly criticize liberal Chinese Communist Party members & any supporters of Nikita Khrushchev (USSR)
Education/academics were discouraged as too ‘elitist’
Red Guards: groups of young people banded together who encouraged all Chinese youth to criticize Mao’s opposition
Lin Piao’s Sept 1965 speech to students: “return to the basic principles of the revolutionary movement”
Created a personality cult for himself.
Sought to destroy the class system, especially the elite
Concerned that the emergence of an elite, privileged class would detract from his own ruling power.
Attacked anyone with a superior attitude
Targeted the privileged class: engineers, scientists, factory managers, etc.
Mao’s main rival was Liu Shao-chi
(feared that he would be overthrown)
October 1968: Mao expelled Liu Shao-chi, marking the removal of his potential rival & the
of Cultural Revolution)
Schools & colleges closed, economy declined, infighting broke out (fighting over who was right about Mao’s views concerning China’s future)
Checked by Zhou Enlai (one of the leading members of the Chinese Communist Party), who “urged for a return to normality”
They turned their anger on foreigners & foreign embassies (e.g. Burned down the British Embassy)
Red Guards’s enthusiasm nearly erupted in social turmoil.
Mao used various terror campaigns to suppress his enemies:
Murder & mass executions
Deliberately used fear to rule the Chinese, encouraging “blind obedience”
Trapped thousands of voluntary youth in Yenan & other communist bases, making it impossible to escape and the attempt to do so “punishable by death.”
Destroyed systematically, killing millions of people standing in his way of whatever he wanted.
First Campaign of Terror
Disillusioned, tortured, isolated, and interrogated them, forcing them to confession to committing espionage
Terror Campaigns (1950-1960)
1958-1960: Great Leap Forward created the people’s Communes; deliberately pauperized Chinese peasants
1957: Targeted the right (political) & “critics of the regime of all stripes”
1953-1958: “collectivization of agriculture”; forced peasants into huge state collective farms
1952: “five antis” campaign targeted “bribery, tax evasion, pilfering state property, cheating, and stealing economic information”; terrorized the capitalist class.
1951: “three-antis” campaign targeted “embezzlement, waste and “bureaucratism”; terrorized Communist government officials.
1950-53: Targeted landowners (whether large or small); condemned, tortured, killed, and terrorized the rural population
1950: Targeted counterrevolutionaries; arrested, shot, and terrorized the politicals
Personality Cult: greatest revolutionary, statesman, theoretician, scientist, etc.(exalted as a god/savior); portraits of Mao all over China
e.g. “An example of earlier censorship in China is the 1957 Anti-Rightist Campaign that was a reaction against the Hundred Flowers Campaign, which was focused on pluralism of expression and criticism of the government”
Censorship: Mao implemented heavy censorship through the CCP to assert strong control over the Chinese people and to prevent any foreign influence, especially from the Western world, that posed a threat to communist China. Mao believed that censorship would create a better China.
Labeled class enemies as “ox devils and snake demons,” which is what Mao now called class enemies.
"Chairman Mao is the Red Sun in Our Hearts!"
Took over the People’s Daily in May 1966 and used it for propaganda
Millions of badges depicting Mao’s head were distributed among the Chinese youth as a token of loyalty.
“Little Red Book”: It included a series of essays written by Mao labeled “Thoughts,” which were eventually published and given as compulsory reading for the military, children, students, and eventually the Chinese public from 1966 until his death.
"We will destroy whomever Opposes Chairman Mao!"
"Establish Chairman Mao’s Absolute Authority!"
1957 Nuclear Technology Transfer Agreement: Khrushchev agreed to advance China’s nuclear weapons program in exchange for foodstuffs.
Mao wanted to keep China independent of the USSR and openly criticized Stalin's successor, Khrushchev.
Initially received aid from the Soviet Union (under Stalin & the Communist Party)
As a result of Mao’s negotiations with Stalin for two months, the Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance was signed by both leaders on February 12, 1950.
Moscow gained some economic and political leverage in China (similar to “colonialism”).
However, Mao accomplished a principal goal of physically removing Soviets from China
Chinese regarded the Soviets as a culturally inferior population.
The Chinese became even more resentful towards the USSR after the Soviet “absorption of Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Manchuria"
Mao believed that a third world war, whether nuclear or conventional, would rid the world of Soviet ‘revisionism’ and American ‘imperialism’
USSR & China relations cut off
Khrushchev violated the nuclear agreement and withdrew USSR material aid to China, fearing that Mao would commit mass murder & destruction through atomic bombs.
Mao and Khrushchev had a disagreement over the invasion of Quemoy (Jinmen) and Matsu (Mazu).
1959: Deteriorated relations with USSR due to disagreements over Mao’s Great Leap Forward domestic policy, his nuclear ambitions for China, and the Sino-Indian War (1962)
Mao argued, “So what if we lose 300 million people [...] Our women will make it up in a generation”
Khrushchev argued that the US also had nuclear weapons.
USSR alienated China even further:Mao reacted by declaring that any secret dealings with any foreign country was forbidden.
Mao did not want to become a mere copy of the USSR.
Ended China’s attempt to imitate the Soviets
Mao declared that China would change the border between the USSR & China, but the Soviets made nuclear threats and mobilized 44 armed divisions to stand along the border, proving that the border was ultimately determined by the Soviets of greater power & strength.
Although women were allowed to participate in politics and exercise their rights, the "women's work" such as household responsibilities of cleaning, cooking, children bearing, and children rearing took up so much of their time that women were mostly hindered from the benefits they earned in the Cultural Revolution.
“Women hold up half the sky”
Mao supported the leader of North Korea, Kim Il Sung, in the Korean War by sending the People’s Volunteer Army (PVA) to aid the North Korean forces battling against the South Korean and United Nations forces.
Mao sent the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to invade Tibet, forcing the Dalai Lama to sign a treaty agreeing with Chinese sovereignty on October 21, 1950.
Tibet became a Chinese protectorate
Granted aid to the North Vietnamese leader, Ho Chi Minh, during the Vietnam War by sending troops to the North Vietnamese border and to the Vietnam border.
1965-1972: over 320,000 PLA troops had served in Vietnam in anti-aircraft & engineering, aiming to defeat US aircraft and repair bomb destruction of Vietnamese transportation
Mao prepared the PLA to invade Taiwan, labeling it as the delayed final battle of the Chinese Civil War.
Obstacles: 90 mile-wide Taiwan Strait guarded by the powerful Seventh Fleet of the US navy, the superior strength of Chiang Kai Shek’s Nationalist army due to US military training and equipment
Mao threatened to take Taiwan by force. Chiang Kai Shek and President Eisenhower did not back down, but rather, prepared their forces.
Mao could not launch a full-scale attack on Taiwan, so he diverted to an invasion of Jinmen (Quemoy) and Mazu (Matsu), which resulted in the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty between China & the US.
April 1955: Bandung Conference in Indonesia resulted in no formal agreement between China and the US
China left Taiwan alone, focusing on its domestic Great Leap Forward
Henry Kissinger set up a meeting between US President Richard Nixon and Mao Zedong as part of the détente policy, which led to a shift in the Cold War.
Mao acted according to “an ancient Chinese diplomatic principle, yuan chiao chin kung, meaning “to appease distant countries while attacking those nearby””
Appeased Canada, Italy, Belgium, Chile and Mexico
Attacked Burma, Indonesia, Thailand, India and Laos
1954: Agreement between India and China to have “mutual respect for territorial sovereignty, mutual non-aggression, mutual non-intervention in internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.”
Reaffirmed at the Conference of Asian Countries (April 1955) in New Delhi, and at the Conference of Asian and African Countries in Bandung, Indonesia.
Later, Mao sent in the PLA troops into India, seizing two key mountain passes to Sikkim and India.
Nehru, the leader of India, waited for two years before trying to stop China. However, he failed to stop the Chinese, who accelerated their attack.
In a panic, Nehru appealed to the USSR and the US, who quickly halted Chinese advances, but Mao had already gotten what he wanted.
1951: Mao sent PLA to “liberate” Tibet from the Dalai Lama’s rule.
Mao sent the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to invade Tibet, forcing the Dalai Lama to sign a treaty agreeing with Chinese sovereignty on October 21, 1950.
Tibet became a Chinese protectorate
Women had four groups of authority before the revolution: political religious, family, masculine (husband).
With the success of the Cultural Revolution in 1949, a new era of women ushered in.
1.Land reform campaign (1950): Women’s Associations encouraged women to speak out against mistreatment and injustice of their superiors.
2.Marriage Law (1950): This law prohibited arranged marriages of young girls, bride prices, domestic abuse, and gave women and men the right to divorce.
a.However, in many parts of China, such as the rural regions, where patriarchal customs were strictly binding, these laws had no effect, so the traditional role of women was usually kept.
b.Divorce was not easy if the husband’s family paid a high bride price for their daughter-in-law.
c.Women were allowed to break from the ancient customs of beauty such as bounding feet. As small feet were a sign of beauty, women bound their feet as a family custom, which caused many deformities.
Treatment of Women
1.Women’s activism was advocated by law. Female Red Guards travelled around the country much like their counterparts.
2.During the years of the Great Leap Forward, millions of women were brought out of homes and into the labor force.
a.About 650,000 women entered mills and factories alongside men.
b.Local Women’s Associations called for female leaders in production and Communist party.
c.This participation in the work force was key to paving the way forward gender equality.
d.Complete equality was not achieved since men were offered higher salaries and work women were excluded from.
3.“Iron Girls Brigades” were teams of young women who would take initiative by taking on demanding and difficult tasks in many areas of industry, politics, and society.
a.Participated in oil drilling, repairing high-voltage lines, and building bridges.
b.The number of women in heavy industry, militia, and positions of leadership was increasing.
c.At least 600,000 women were members of the communist party
d.Women worked in the army, navy, and air forces
4.Due to the increase of women in the work force, children were raised not at home, but at nursing rooms for infants in some factories. The socializing childcare centers resulted as women were pulled into the work force. Soon, men and women were responsible for the rearing of their children.
5.Birth control campaigns spread across industrial cities as later marriages and smaller families were recommended. Contrasting from the other single party authoritarian states which gave out tax exemptions to large families, China had a large population of over 1 billion which was plenty to supply the work force of the Great Leap Forward.
6.To encourage women in the countryside to practice their new rights, 8 million young women, who have no family to take care of or any responsibilities, were sent to rural areas of China to study with peasants the Little Red Book, or Quotations from Mao Tsetung. This book was mass produced and was their Bible in the Communist society.
a.Older women with families were starting to discuss state affairs and be an active member of the board as silence was not a sign of respect after the Cultural Revolution.
7.Women’s clothes were uniform. They were not made to be attractive or show individuality. Appearance was all communal and freedom of expression and sexual freedom, such as losing chastity before marriage, was not part of the freedom advocated during the Cultural Revolution.
8.Women’s Federation carried out province-wide campaigns concerning the promotion of free-choice marriage, abolition of bride prices, traditional marriage rituals, equal pay for equal work for women, and establishment of year-round nurseries and kindergartens for women to continue working in the working force after birth.
Thousands of years of traditional Chinese culture was being targeted by the Revolution, so much of social norms, such as “proper behavior,” took a longer time to adjust to the practices that were being enforced.
Times have changed, and today men and women are now equal
1. Develop steel plants all over China
2. Agricultural farmers stay and support the working class by providing food.
3. Divide land to each family
4. Organize land communes(many families sometimes 25,000 people farm together and share profits)
5. Along with the newly constructed steel plants and heavy industries, backyard furnaces were encouraged in each home. these were used to make iron and steel.
6. Massive projects were carried out for public works such as railroad networks.
Great Leap Forward Policies
Great Leap Forward will make China a leading economy racing face to face with Britain 15 years.
INSERT PICTURE HERE
Young Mao Zedong
Chiang Kai Shek
Chiang Kai-shek meeting with his staff during the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45)
Chinese Civil War
Export of Agriculture
The original plan of the Great Leap Forward ordered peasants in the rural regions for irrigation and farming. The food harvested were to feed the working class and surplus to be exported for capital for the heavy industries.
After one year of idealistic planning, Mao placed the 100 million peasants from farms to industries leaving much of the agriculture to rot during harvest time. The shortage of food was acceptable to the point of survival and not much to cause the Great Leap famine.
However, officials feared Mao's authority and did not want to report the slow progress and deteriorating farm land, so they lied that there was enough food to feed the mass and export for capital.
Rice was exported out of the country leaving the people with nothing to eat; thus, the start of the famine.
Problems resulting from Industry
1. Constructing heavy industrial factories called for massive amounts of capital investments. The Great Leap Forward increased the government deficit from 38% of investment capital in 1956 to 56% in 1958.
2. To finance such technology for economic advancement in the economically backward China, the surplus from the countryside was used for funds. the large-scale machinery that China was scarce of de-emphasized the human labor power China was so abundant in.
Inside the World of Mao's Great Leap Forward
(Dealing with Opposition)
1.The Chinese communist party (CCP) is officially an atheist state.
a.Religious thought and worship have been tolerated, but traditional Chinese religious descended into minorities (Articles 88 in the First Constitution 1954) (Cultural Revolution (1975) article 28)
i.Document 19, also, acknowledged religion and the necessity of such practices
b.The CCP deemed Buddhist, Christian, Daoist and Muslim religions to be official religious bodies because of the needed support to the rise the stabilization of communist power. Other “unofficial” religions were claimed unpatriotic and threatening to the state.
2.Confucianism: the attitudes and ideas contributed to Chinese culture
a.Confucianism never became an official religion despite its influence in the education system of the communist state.
b.To be official meant to be practiced openly. However, due to its declined state, they resorted to worshiping in private.
c.The CCP abolished anything that was associated with Confucianism such as the national holiday in honor of Confucius.
d.Temples and shrines were closed down during land reform and the Great Leap Forward.
a.Daoist temples were suspended during the Cultural revolution despite its being an official religion before the revolution.
b.The believers had to abandon their position in politics in the 1950’s due to the changing conditions.
c.The CCP caused monks to leave temples. They had to find jobs of manual labor to survive, adding to the work effort of the Great Leap Forward.
a.Buddhism was respected as an official religion because most of the peasants participated in Buddhist practices.
b.During lad reform, many of the Buddhist lands were confiscated to be evenly distributed to the peasants, although not all monasteries suffered land loss.
c.Many monks and nuns left due to the suspension of donation boxes due to the finances needed during the Great Leap Forward.
d.The monks and nuns worked on farms and factories after they left
i.13,000 temples were torn down or abandoned and more than 200,000 monks and nuns left
e.Monasteries were converted into schools, museums, offices, and military bases.
f.Chinese Buddhism Association halted due to the consequences of the CCP’s actions forward the religious minorities.
5.Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism
a.Tibetan religion was harder to wear away due to its close tie to political actions and its independence from the CCP, although not an official religion.
b.During and after the Cultural Revolution, increased attacks to religion also affected Tibetan Buddhism and culture.
6.Christianity (Protestantism and Catholicism)
a.Christian churches were independent of the politics of China. The CCP wanted to maintain control of all religions in its state, so they made Christianity an official religion to keep watch whenever necessary.
b.Many Christian groups were accused of many obscene crimes and degraded into worshiping in hiding due to the Cultural Revolution’s influences on law.
c.Three-Self Patriotic Movement: version of Christianity controlled and licensed by the CCP and to strictly define this religion as China’s not Vatican’s.
i.Underground Christian leaders would be subjected to labor or “re-education.” These leaders were against the Three-Self Patriotic Movement.
Religions and Government Policies
Major Religious Disturbances
Khotan 1950: A Khotan rising by the Pan-Turkic organization calling for the establishment of a Muslim state.
a. Seized weapons and vehicles to attack the county town of Khotan.
b. they claimed that the Communists "have stolen the land, food, minerals, and property of the Muslims."
c. The Muslims also suffered the loss of their mosques and right to worship openly.
Baren 1990: Although this took place many years after Mao died, his policies after the Cultural Revolution influenced this event.
a. The most serious and large-scale disturbances in Xinjiang could be attributed to the violence and conflict in this riot.
b. A group of Kyrgyz men attending the prayers at a mosque on the 5th of April were caught criticizing the CCP policies towards ethnic minorities, which included birth control, nuclear weapons, and the export of Xinjiang's resources to China.
c. These criticisms developed into mass protests which called for the People's Armed Police to suppress the rising.
d. As a result, 50 mosques were closed and religious minorities continued to be oppressed by the CCP's policies and suspicions.
Overall Plan of the Great Leap Forward
1. Agricultural farms are to grow food for the people and export surplus goods for capital.
2. Backyard furnaces are to be built to practice and support the melting of iron and steel works.
3. Public projects are to be organized to advocate industrialization.
4. Increase productivity by constructing Steel plants which would lead to manufacturing of consumer goods. (key to the rise of economic status for China)
This plan will take 15 years to develop China into a world class economy worthy of competing with Britain.
3. 100 million peasants were brought into the industry to work in the water-conservation industry instead of working in the farms=no food.
4. 550,000 people died in 1958, a year after the start of the Great Leap Forward, due to opposition
5. Reports from the Steel plants were false because no one wanted to tell the CCP that the proposed plan was too idealistic for them to carry out. Therefore, the notion of careful planning as well as the rate of industrialization for the Communist state was destroyed.
Benefits of Industry
1. Production multiplied 13-fold
2. Railway network boomed.
3. Half the land of China was irrigated.
These projects were costly, but the result was the economy of China today. Mao set the ground work of the production of China.
No food to feed the people due to the export of the food that was supposed to be restocking the shelves of the markets
Backyard Furnaces: are used for people at home to practice industrialization, to teach youth factory work, and to contribute to the work effort. These helped minimize the cost of construction for Steel Plants.
Iron works helped multiply manufactured production.
Famine Kills 40 Million Citizens
The industry pulled farmers out of their farms and poor planning caused famine. The famine mostly affected the rural families, whose children most likely served in the army. The Communist army morale decreased dramatically causing the state to suffer major setbacks.
Farmers started to individualize by taking production into their own hands and did not yield to collectivization. This improved agricultural production.
Mao's influence began to decrease and was kicked out of power until the Cultural Revolution. the famine and the idealistic goals were too much for the people and the state to handle. Mao could only wait till the Revolution to full assert his cult of personality