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Plate Tectonics

Group Project
by

Erin McCabe

on 13 November 2013

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Transcript of Plate Tectonics

Scientists
Evidence for Fact
Scientific Historian - Matthew Rathmann/ Kenzie Bailey
Paleontologist - Emily Driessen
Biologist - Erin McCabe
Geological Oceanographer - Chloe Kachel
Volcanologist - Jenny Hall
Seismologist - Justin Slaman
Geologist - Owen Pasvogel
Geophysicist - Nick Todtenhagen
Astronomer - Lindsey Rice

Scientists of Plate Tectonics
Biologist
What is a Biologist?
Geological Oceanography
Plate Tectonics:
FACT OR FICTION?

VOLCANOLOGY:
Volcanology is the study of volcanoes.
Geophysics
BUT WHERE???
Most volcanoes are located along the "Ring of Fire"
"Ring of Fire" lines the Pacific Plate.
Geologist
Alfred Wegener
Key Terms
Scientific Historian
Volcanologist
Geophysicist
A geologist studies the processes and history that has shaped the earth.
Volcano - a vent (opening) at the Earth's crust through which magma (molten rock) and associated gases erupt.
Magma - molten rock beneath the surface of the Earth.
Lava - magma that has reached the surface.


Paleontologist
Palaeomagnetism
Magnetic striping
Polar wandering
Matthew Rathmann
Kenzie Bailey
TYPES OF VOLCANOES:
• 1911 South America and Africa
• 1911-1915 Fossils, Climate, Mountains
• 1915 Theory of Continental Drift

Magnetic striping - theory that basalt cools in patterns according to magnetic poles.
Palaeomagentism -
study of fossil
magnetism in rocks
Polar wandering - concept that poles
haven't stayed in one place
Mountain Chains
Coal seams
Glaciation
• 1913 Geological Timeline
• 1930 Convection Currents

Arthur Holmes
Type of
volcano
volcano
shape
Astronomy
Harry Hess


: a branch of knowledge that deals with living organisms and vital processes
Biology
Biologist

Someone who studies the above
• 1946 Underwater Seamounts
• 1950 Mid Ocean Ridge
• 1960 Theory of SeaFloor Spreading
• Supercontinent Proof

Overview of Plate Tectonics
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Key points:
• Plates
• Convection Currents
• Plate Boundaries

Fact Or Fiction?
Edward Suess
Discovered Glossopteris in parts of India, Australia, South America, and South Africa
A geological oceanographer uses geologic clues to discover how the Earth and oceans came to be the way they are and how ongoing geologic processes may change them in the future.
specialists in studies of fossils
1861 Purposed the idea of a supercontinent called Gondwanaland
1885-1901 "The Face of the Earth
Tuzo Wilson
1963 Purposed his theory of the Hawaiian Islands being formed by a "hotspot"
1972 "Is the African Plate Stationary?"
Age of sediments on the ocean floor/ sea floor spreading
Plate Boundries
-Large cracks in surface
-Huge Crustal Plates
-9 times larger than the Grand Canyon.
-A planetry geologist things Mars has 2 plates
-Long strait chain of vocanoes
-Marsquakes (VERY rare)
1972 "Is the African Plate Stationary?"
Mars
Polar Dinosaurs
Topography of the ocean floor
The topography and age of sediments supports the argument of the theory of plate tectonics. It shows that the new material is where the plates are, and that on the ocean floor there is proof on plate tectonics existing.
PACIFIC PLATE?
An astronomer is someone who researches a specific area in space, whether that is formation of stars or discovering specific features of planets.
This is the only explaination for the strange "ring" shape.
Volcanoes form when magma releases from the mantle and creates new rock.
Over millions of years, the volcano gets bigger and bigger.
When preasure builds, lava breaches the surface, and an EXPLOSION OCCURS!!
Giant Brachiosaurus in both Colorado and Tanzania tells us there must have been connections between North America, Europe, and Africa
Each side of a body of water separating North America and Europe large populations of differing forms were thriving Cambrian period
By looking at the locations of these varying forms of trilobites we can determine the ancient outline of a 500 million year old sea
Eruption
type
Cinder
Cone
Volcano
Shield
volcano
Conclusion #1
Strato-
volcano
Steep hill,
straight sides
very gentle
slopes,
convex upward
Fred Vine
Relatives of Glossoptrea have been found in South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Antarctica, and Australia; all the continents of Gondwanaland
gentle lower
slopes, steep
upper slopes,
Mesosaurus and Other Vertebrae fossils
Explosion
Glossoptrea and Gangamopteris

Cause of plate tectonics - convection
currents, mid ocean ridges

Continents keep moving, eventually will come back together

Multiple plate movement - Pangea, Rodinia
quiet
explosion
Explosion
1963 Discovery of magnetic bands and connection to seafloor spreading
BLACK SMOKERS:
Deep on the ocean floor, ridges where new crust is born (midocean ridges), small openings are releasing heat from the mantle.
Heat released doesn't boil water, its released in form of dense black smoke.
1963 Authored "Magnetic Anomalies over Ocean Ridges"
Drummond Matthews
1967-1972 "The heroic period of ocean exploration."
1962 Studied a survey with patterns of magnetic anomalies (reverse polarities)
1963 Published findings in "Nature"
1966 Deduced seafloor spreading was constant
• Plate Tectonics are real
• Multiple Science Occupations
• Tons of Evidence!!!

-Thought Venus had no plates
-Radar imagery strange plate tectonics, never seen before
-Young surface
-Large round and oval mounds (100km across)
-Parrelel ridges in surface
-Troughs where crust pulled apart
Venus
Ganymede
- large grooves
-Crust in fragments
Io
-Like young form of Earth
-lava lakes
-Orbit
-Heat flows to surface volcanic pipes large amounts.
Jupiter's Moons
-All of these volcanoes are located on the rim of the Pacific Plate.
-This proves that the plate is there and moving.
-Hawaii



Conclusion
All the evidence supports the theory of plate tectonics, there is no weakness in the evidence that we have found.
fossil evidence
age of seafloor
land features
all of this supports the theory of plate tectonics.

"It's Just a Theory." It's Just a Theory. Web. 01 Nov. 2013.
"It's Just a Theory." It's Just a Theory. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.


"The Moon Ganymede: Laboratory for Tectonic Motion." The Moon Ganymede: Laboratory for Tectonic Motion. Web. 07 Nov. 2013.

"National Optical Astronomy Observatory." : Being an Astronomer. Web. 07 Nov. 2013.

"Oceanography." Oceanography. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

PBS. PBS. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.

PBS. PBS. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.

Photograph. U.S. Geological Survey. USGS. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

"Plate Tectonics." Plate Tectonics. Web. 07 Nov. 2013.

"Polar Wandering (Geophysics)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.

"Ring of Fire." Ring of Fire. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

"Scientists Find Clues of Plate Tectonics on Mars." Universe Today RSS. 17 Aug. 2012. Web. 05 Nov. 2013.

"Tasmania/35,000 Year Old Tree Fossil." Gondwana. Web. 07 Nov. 2013.

"Tectonics on Venus." Tectonics on Venus. Web. 05 Nov. 2013.

"The Theory of Plate Tectonics." Volcanice Galapagos. University of Oregon. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.

"This Old Earth." This Old Earth. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.

"Three Main Types of Volcanoes & Utah Volcanoes - Utah Geological Survey." Three Main Types of Volcanoes & Utah Volcanoes - Utah Geological Survey. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

"Three Main Types of Volcanoes & Utah Volcanoes - Utah Geological Survey." Three Main Types of Volcanoes & Utah Volcanoes - Utah Geological Survey. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

"Volcanoes: Principal Types of Volcanoes." Volcanoes: Principal Types of Volcanoes. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

"What Is a Hot Spot? | Volcano World." What Is a Hot Spot? | Volcano World. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

"What Is Volcanology? | Volcano World." What Is Volcanology? | Volcano World. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

"Who, What, Where, When ..." Timeline Index. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.

Works Cited

"91.06.05: The Great Continental Drift Mystery." 91.06.05: The Great Continental Drift Mystery. Web. 01 Nov. 2013.

"AccessScience | Encyclopedia Article | Volcanology." AccessScience | Encyclopedia Article | Volcanology. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

"Age of the Ocean Floor." Ngdc.noaa.gov. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

"Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." Alfred Wegener. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

"Does the Distribution of Coal Deposits Refute the Vapor Canopy Theory?Does Plate Tectonics Provide the Answer?" National History Highlight. Web. 07 Nov. 2013.

"Earth's Tectonic Plates Map." By Maps.com from Maps.com. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.

"From Lava Lakes on Jupiter's Moon, Io, Come Ideas About What Earth May Have Looked Like as a Newborn Planet." - News Center. Web. 07 Nov. 2013.

"Geological Oceanography." Geological Oceanography. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

"Global Relief Maps From NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center." Jefferybutler.com. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

"Gondwana Timeline." Gondwana Timeline. Web. 01 Nov. 2013.

"Google Books." Google Books. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.
Citations
Tasmanian pine fossil in Chile only known in Gondwana
Wollemi Pine
Marsupials in Australia and SA
Earthworms of the family Megascolecina
"peculiar sprinkling across South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Australia, and New Guinea which makes little sense until their locations are plotted on a map of Godawanaland."
Brazilian green sea turles: migration to crazy distances, started close but continental drift changed it.
Fossils of Gondwanan flora match those still living in Australia, still alive there because of isolation, island
Gondwana
Patterns of flora in G.
Fossil of Gondwanan flora
Wollemia nobilis Araucariaceae
Wollemi Pine
Gondwana tree
More Gondwana Flora
Wollemi Pine Cones
• Gangamopteris is a genus of Carboniferous-Permian, very similar to Glossopteris. Previously, it was classified as fern with reproduction by seed
Seafloor spreading: a process in which new ocean floor is created as molten materials from the earths mantel rises in the margins between plates and spreads out.
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