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DEFINITION OF TERMS
Components of Horizontal Curve
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A brief history of Surveying:
Broken back curve
Degree of curve
Direction of travel
Right of Way
Basic surveyance has occurred since humans built the first large structures. (i.e. Stonehenge, Great Pyramids of Giza, etc.)
In the 18th century, modern techniques and instruments for surveying began to be used.
Types of Horizontal Curves
Route Surveying is:
What are the purposes of Route Surveying?
defined as being the required service and product that adequately locates the planned path of a linear project
laying out of proposed corridors for transportation systems
a survey of the earth’s surface along a particular route in the compilation and updating of topographical, geological, soil, and other maps
Route Surveys shall include but are not limited to the proper location, monumentation, description or platting of the following routes:
Point of Intersection (PI)
Point of Curvature (PC)
Point of Tangency (PT)
Tangent Distance (T)
Long Chord (LC)
Length of the Curve (L)
External Distance (E)
Middle Ordinate (M)
Intersection Angle (I)
Transmission lines for communications, fuel, chemical, water and electrical needs.
FEATURES OF ROUTE SURVEYING
Canals, waterways, drainage ditches and sewers.
Artificial or Man-Made Features:
Settlements - a permanent or temporary community
Engineered constructs - highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs, which are part of the anthroposphere
Ecosystems - These affect route planning because there are laws that protect certain ecosystems.
Landforms - A landform comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape.
View easements, air space easements, ingress and egress easements such as approach routes
by: Group 1
Canal - Route surveyors design water canals in such a way that the water that passes through may be able to flow in an efficient and practical manner while not disrupting any land related structure like roads and bridges near its vicinity
Railroads - Railroads are designed to be able to carry the weight of the load of the trains and tracks placed along a certain portion of land. An ideal railroad must have firm soil for which it can be placed and not collapse.
Pipelines - designed in a way wherein the materials that pass through the pipes are able to flow efficiently and quickly. The pipes are laid out in a manner wherein they are following a practical route without any obstacles in its path.
Highways - designed to let vehicles pass through while estimating the appropriate width of the road and the form of the road with regards to its land contour in order to have an effective flow of traffic.
Drainage ditches - play major roles in agriculture throughout the world. Improper drainage systems accelerate water contamination, excessively desiccate soils during seasonal drought, and become a financial burden to maintain.
Sewer – an artificial usually subterranean conduit to carry off sewage and sometimes surface water
Transmission structures - support the phase conductors and shield wires of a transmission line. The structures commonly used on transmission lines are either lattice type or pole type.