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Commercialization and the pressure of Advertising
Transcript of Commercialization and the pressure of Advertising
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMERCIALISATION & ADVERTISING
McManus defines commercialisation as “to make something into a business. But the word connotes corruption, meaning “to emphasize the profitable aspects of, especially by sacrificing quality or debasing inherent nature” (Random House, 1999)” (McManus 2008, p. 219).
“Making that assumption, I will define the commercialisation of news as any action intended to boost profit that interferes with a journalist’s or news organisations best effort to maximise public understanding of those issues and events that shape the community they claim to serve” (McManus 2008, p. 219).
COMMERCIALISATION AFFECTS JOURNALISTS DECISION
“Commercial advertisement are so much more a part of modern life that we all to often fail to notice how big an influence they have.” - Stuart Bray, Blogger.
ADVERTISING AT FIRST GLANCE
By waging ‘psychological warfare on vulnerable minds’ - as Bray puts it.
WHY DO COMPANIES DO IT?
Financial incentives drive companies to spend millions on cleaver ways to engage a target market. Companies pour their money into research to refine more devious methods of marketing.
NEWSROOMS FAVORING ENTERTAINMENT OVER TRADITIONAL NEWS
“There is a war going on in our newsrooms & it is ‘newsrooms vs. entertainment.’
THE RESULT OF COMMERCIALISATION IN NEWS
Commercialisation in news is prioritising entertainment - & therefore profit over traditional, informative news.
THE PUBLIC SERVICE ROLE - JOURNALIST ROLE
FUTURE OF ADs IN NEWSPAPERS
WHY IS ADVERTISING PRESSURE SO INFLUENTIAL TODAY?
The public has the right to expect journalism to fulfill their role as the fourth estate & act as a public trust.
The role of newspapers is to be free & independent, to inform and to encourage more people to read.
Especially, looking at free newspapers, they have a positive social effect by encouraging new people
Almost £400m in print advertising is forecast to be lost from the UK newspaper market by the end of 2014, with digital revenues only able to make up about 25% of this decline. (Guardian, 2013)
UK newspaper market is projected to shrink by 8.2% this year, or £186m, to £2.06bn.
PRESSURE FROM ADVERTISERS
Liberal View: Advertising has a positive effect on the media, to highlight the revenue enables newspapers to be independent from state.
Regulatory View: Argues that media may distort their coverage to accommodate advertiser concerns. Some say, extensive commercialisation in news and media content weakens the participatory foundations of democracy.
Economic pressure is not uncommon in media, journalism has established itself as a system within society.
First, the media structure is evolving. The changes are evident by the increasing number of media mergers and a rise in the number of investors from outside the media sector.
Second, the media industry has been effected by an increased emphasis on economic concerns at the organisational level of media firms.
TRENDS OF COMMERCIALISATION IN MEDIA
EFFECTS OF COMMERCIALISATION
Overall: The pressure can lead to a lacking separation between editorial content & advertising.
ADVERTISERS AIM & VIEW
Advertisers are searching for an approach that will achieve the best return on investment. They are looking for a constant dialogue with customers.
Advertisers with more expenditure still mainly aim at mass markets (E.G. newspapers) as the cost are relatively lower & the rewards are higher compared to niche target.
HOW TO MANAGE INCREASED COMMERCIALISATION
In depth training for media professionals, to improve the quality of output.
Resurrect the professional and ethical dimensions of journalism.
Ensure the Press Complaints Council has clear guidelines for the media function.
These economic pressures may well tear down the ‘Chinese Wall’ that usually separates the editorial from the commercial.
LONDON FREE NEWSPAPERS
The most common free papers:
The Evening Standard was named the Daily Newspaper of the Year.
London Press Club president, Professor Donald Trelford said the Evening Standard won because it "has shown the most outstanding improvement during the year after years of financial doom and gloom."
He added "It achieved this by a bold commercial step in becoming a free paper and by showing great editorial confidence with a series of exclusives and campaigns."
The Evening Standard became a free newspaper on the 12th October, 2009.
By October 2010 Evening Standard circulation had increased to 700,000 a day
Rufus Olins, chief executive of Newsworks
It reaches more than 1.6 million people
In the 12 months leading up to September 2012 E.S made a profit of £82 000 compared to a loss of £7.5m the year before
Independent print who publish The Independent, Independent on Sunday and i had a loss of £17.5m in the year leading up to September 2012
Shanique, Katherine & Jacquline
“Today, the demand of professional journalist are carefully balanced with the interest of owners & stakeholders of media companies & their cross media interest.”
[Picard 2004, p61] declares: “The primary content of newspaper today is commercialised news & features designed to appeal to broad audiences, to entertain, to be cost effective & to maintain readers whose attention can be sold to advertisers.
Its circulation went from 250,000 to 600,000 overnight
THE EVENING STANDARD
Yellow journalism is a term that was first coined during the 19th century.
Increased use of sensationalized stories.
What does this have to do with commercialization?
Commercialization of news papers.
War between Joseph Pulitzer and William Hearst.
Brought on a whole new world of journalism
Metro has become the third largest national daily newspaper in the country
It is read by over 3.4m adults
In London its the most read national daily with 2m readers
Record profits of more than £9m in 2010
"Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what you are doing, but nobody else does." -
Stewart Henderson Britt, New York Herald Tribune, October 30, 1956