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Kingdoms Mind-Map

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s elhelow

on 21 January 2013

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Transcript of Kingdoms Mind-Map

By: Sara El Helow KINGDOMS Plantae • multicellular, autotrophs
• reproduce sexually & asexually
• most are terrestrial
• cell wall is present (contains cellulose)
• cells are eukaryotic
• most synthesize carbohydrates through photosynthesis
• lack mobility
• supportive structures: stems & roots
• anchoring structures: roots
• vascular system carries nutrients + water
• cuticle reduces water loss
• stomata regulates gas exchange & reduces water loss Animalia • eukaryotic
• all are multicellular
• all are heterotrophs (carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, parasites)
• most reproduce sexually
• live in terrestrial & aquatic habitats
• cells are eukaryotic
• cell wall is absent; only cell membrane
• divided into vertebrates & invertebrates (majority are invertibrates)
• have digestive tract or gut
• have a coelom or body cavity
• most are bilaterally symmetric
• body plan becomes fixed through development
• some undergo metamorphisis
• most are motile Protista • most are single-celled; some are multicellular; some are eukaryotic
• some autotrophs; some heterotrophs; some both
• contains plantlike, animal-like, and fungilike protists
• contains organisms that don't fit into other 5 kingdoms
• reproduce sexually or asexually
• demonstrate important evolutionary advancement: discrete, membrane-bound nucleus
• most are microscopic & unicellular
• live in aquatic/moist habitats
• cell wall is absent Archaebacteria • "ancient bacteria"
• oldestorganisms living on earth
• prokaryotic
• heterotrophs
• live in salt lakes, hot springs, and animal guts
• lack distinct cell nucleus
• cell wall is present (does not contain peptidoglycan)
• anaerobic
• RNA of ribosomes is different to that of Eubacteria
• include methane forming (salt loving + heat loving bacteria)
Fungi • most are multicellular
• all are heterotrophs
• reproduce sexually and asexually
• most are terrestrial
• cell wall is present (contains chitin)
• eukaryotic
• used as a direct source of food
• used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases & insect pests
• provide numerous drugs (penicillin & other antibiotics)
• some species grow as single-celled yeasts that reproduce by budding or binary fission
• dimorphic fungi switch between yeast phase & hyphal phase
• cause number of plant & animal diseases Eubacteria • includes all bacteria except archaebacteria
• simple organisms lacking nuclei (prokaryotic)
• either heterotrophs, autotrophs, or chemotrophs
• reproduce asexually
• live nearly everywhere
• cell wall is often present (contains peptidoglycan)
• unicellular
• characterized by lack of membrane-enclosed nucleus
• predominantly unicellular
• some can cause health problems
ex. strep throat & food poisoning
• some are good to eat
ex. yogurt Echinodermata • sessile, sand borrowing, or slow crawling
• endoskeleton
• open circulatory system
• respire through diffusion
• adults: 5-sided radial symmetry
• larvae: bilateral symmetry
• spiny-skinned
• water vascular system (interconnecting fluid tubes)
• found in aquatic habitats
• have oral and radial nerve chords Panthera tigris altaica Lumbricina Scyphozoa Echinaster sepositus Chordata • most complex + advanced living organisms
• all have a notochord, hollow dorsal nerve tube, tail, pharynx
• 95% belong to subphylum "Vertebrata"
• all vertebrates have: endoskeleton, large brain, advanced nervous system, complex heart + circulatory system, large coelom
• Endotherms (warm-blooded)
• Ectotherms (cold-blooded) Pogona vitticeps (cold-blooded) Haliaeetus leucocephalus (warm-blooded)) Mollusca • 2nd largest in animal kingdom (next to arthopods)
• go through larval stage
• adults vary in appearance, but share common body plan
• digest through radula + filter feeding
• closed circulatory system
• all have coelom, complete digestive tract, bilaterally symmetric
• have primitive brain + light receptors Neritilia hawaiiensis development of eggs follows unique pattern (share common ancestor) Porifera • simplest + most primitive animals
• cells not arranged in tissues or organs
• sessile
• irregular shape
• no nervous system, mouth, digestive cavity, muscle tissue, brain
• system of feeding brings food to them
• digestion occurs in collar cells or amoebocytes
• hermaphroditic
• asymmetrical
• reproduce asexually & sexually
• part of sponge may breakoff - some will form new individuals
• found in aquatic habitats + fresh water Spongilla lacustris Arthropoda • largest phylum in animal kingdom (90%)
• found in all habitats
• key feature: exoskeleton/cuticle
• grows by shedding cuticle
• eyes: photoreceptors
• antenae: touch-sensitive
• open ciculatory system
• heart located in hemocoel
• blood pigments don't carry oxygen
• respire through tracheal system & gills
• various stages of metamorphosis
• bilateral symmetry Vespula vulgaris Nematoda • cylindrical, slender, tapered at either end
• aquatic & terrestrial
• some are parasites
• bilateral symmetry
• reproduce sexually
• circulate through diffusion
• simplest organisms to have complete digestive tract
• no respiratory or circulatory system
• O2 + CO2 exchanged by diffusion Heterodera glycines Dicksonia antarctica spermatophytes
(plants with seeds) tracheophytes
(vascular plants) Angiosperms • enclosed seeds
• flowering plants
• male parts, female parts, or both
• produce seeds enclosed in fruit formed by certain flower parts
• self-pollination/cross pollination
• pollination aided by wind, insects, birds, bats
• many reproduce asexually, all reproduce by alternation of generations
• survives various environmental forces it encounters Magnolia virginiana Gymnosperms • produce "naked seeds", usually inside cones
• evolved thin, needlelike leaves (help plants resist harsh weather)
• roots extend over wide S.A. (anchor from tree where soil is scarce)
• form basis of many large ecosystems (provide habitat + food for many animal species) Pinus halepensis Fly agaric Basidiomycetes • many are edible or poisonous
• reproduce asexually & sexually
• rusts and smuts (cause severe plant diseases)
• mushrooms (edible and poisonous)
• wood decayers (living/dead) in forests/buildings
• cause brown rot or white rot
• plant litter & soil are major habitats
• luminescent, hallucinogenic, lichenized, nematophagous, or aquatic Rhodotus palmatus Phaeophyceae Ciliophora • possess cilia (sometimes cover entire organism)
• cilia are synchronized for swimming in free moving organisms
• most advanced of protozoans
• found in fresh water + marine habitats
• oral groove contains mouth that leads to cavity (gullet)
• has 2 nuclei: macronucleus (cell's activites
micronucleus (reproduction)
• usually reproduce asexually by binary fission
• may undergo conjugation
• defense mechanism: trichocysts
Paramecium caudatum Sarcodina
(Amoeboids) • free-living forms
• amoeba is one of the largest yet least complex
• move by repeatedly extending + retracting pseudopods
• cytoplasm has 2 layers: ectoplasm (semi-rigid layer under plasma membrane), endoplasm (fluid inside cell
• reproduce by binary fission (could occur once/day) Ammonia tepida Sporozoa • lack any means of independent locomotion
• have no pseudo pods, cilia, flagella (with exceptions)
• exclusively parasitic + depend on body fluids of their hosts for movement
• have fewer organelles & specialized structures than other protozoans
• have reproductive cells that can produce a new organism w/o fertilization
• sometimes 2 or more hosts are involved - parasite reproduces sexually in one host & asexually in the other
• insects frequently responsible for transmitting sporozoans from one host to next (referred to as insect vectors) Plasmodium Escherichia coli Cyanobacteria • aquatic and photosynthetic (obtain energy through photosynthesis)
• usually unicellular
• often grow in colonies large enough to see
• rich in chemical diversity
• named from bluish pigment phycocyanin (used to capture light for photosynthesis)
• one of very few groups of organisms able to convert inert atmospheric nitrogen into organic form (nitrate or ammonia) Arthrospira Halobacterium Extreme thermophiles • high temperature and acid resistant bacteria
• ability is due to presence of special lipids in cell membrane
• have enzymes which can with stand extreme conditions
• can survive at very low pH that is 2 and at high temperature as 80 degree Celsius
• chemosynthetic
• represent earliest form of life, referred as "Living Fossils"
• many depend on sulfur in metabolism
• many produce sulfuric acid as end-product A colony of thermophiles in the outflow of Mickey Hot Springs, Oregon, water temperature is approximately 60°C.
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