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Transcript of Task-Based Teaching
Types of tasks: Willis (1996)
Pre- task activities
1. The teacher introduces the topic and gives clear instructions on what they will have to do.
2. It could be a task that will help students to recall language that will be useful in the next task.
3. In this stage students can make notes and prepare themselves for the main task.
Prepares Ss for a task
Cooperates, listens and responds to Ss’ needs
Monitors Ss working with the main task
Provides Ss with the feedback
How to define a task?
A task according to
is a range of activities from the simple and brief exercises to more complex and lengthy activities such as
states that a task is a piece of classroom work which involves learners in
in the target language while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form.
argues that a task is an activity which required learners
to arrive at an outcome
from given information
through a process of thought
that can be regulated and controlled by the teacher.
A LOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CLT
activities that involve real communication are essential
for language learning
activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks to promote learning
language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process
Fluency vs. accuracy?
It is argued by proponents of the TBLT that there is no evidence that the type of grammar-focused teaching activities used in L2 classrooms reflects the cognitive learning process employed in naturalistic language learning situations outside the classroom.
The key assumptions of TBLT
Emphasis on communication and meaning
Students learn by interaction
Activities and tasks that draw on practical
Activities and tasks are sequenced according to
The difficulty of a task depends on a range of
Making errors is natural
Lexical units are central in language use
Theory of learning
Tasks provide both the input and output
processing necessary for language acquisition
Task activity and achievement are motivational
Tasks should be designed to facilitate the use and learning of particular aspects of langauge.
• listing tasks
students have to make up a list of things they
would pack if they were
going on a trip
• sorting and ordering
Ss work in pairs and make up a list of the most
important characteristics of an ideal school
Ss compare ads for two different supermarkets
Ss read a letter to an advice columnist and suggest a solution to the writer’s problem
• sharing personal
Ss discuss their opinions to an ethical or moral dilemma
• creative tasks
Ss prepare plans for redecorating a house
1. Group participant
3. Risk taker and innovator
Examples of pre-tasks
1. Pictures, texts and songs.
2. Brainstorming, comparing ideas and sharing experiences.
3. Eliciting vocabulary
Types of tasks:
(require the use of specific
interactional strategies &
uses of language)
In the post task students select, identify and classify common words and phrases.
They practice language and phrases in the classroom.
Students build their own dictionaries.
It is suitable for all levels
There is a lot of exposure to language
It allows meaningful communication
It helps students to overcome the language barrier and motivates them
Students are encouraged to use whatever language they know
Students learn practical language – collocation, everyday phrases, and patterns
While working in groups, students continuously interact speaking the target language
Types of post tasks
1. Students give a report.
2. Students repeat the main task ( they switch a group).
3. Students listen to the recording or watch a movie of fluent
speakers doing the same task.
4. A teacher gives feedback and evaluates the success of the task.
A lot of creativity is required from the teacher
Evaluation may be difficult for the teacher
Since it is student-centered approach, it requires much
commitment and engagement on the part of the student
Students accuracy might not be as good as their fluency
Various tasks must be prepared beyond tasks included in course books
- Report Analysis
1) Students are given the task by the teacher, with clear instructions.
2) It is important to set time limitations
3) Depending on the task, they work either in groups or individually
4) Students plan their work and discuss their ideas. They divide the work among themselves
1) Each group/each student present their work
2) Their work is assessed on the basis of both task completion and language accuracy
3) Students' work is discussed
This part may overlap with post-task activities. If there is such a need, or if the students express their interest in the task, it may be repeated, preferably with slight changes .