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Task-Based Teaching

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on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of Task-Based Teaching

Task-Based Teaching (or Task-Based Instruction)
Types of tasks: Willis (1996)
Pre- task activities
1. The teacher introduces the topic and gives clear instructions on what they will have to do.

2. It could be a task that will help students to recall language that will be useful in the next task.

3. In this stage students can make notes and prepare themselves for the main task.
Teacher's role:
Selects tasks

Prepares Ss for a task

Cooperates, listens and responds to Ss’ needs

Monitors Ss working with the main task

Provides Ss with the feedback

How to define a task?
A task according to
Breed
is a range of activities from the simple and brief exercises to more complex and lengthy activities such as
group problem-solving
or
simulation
and
decision-making
.
Nunan
states that a task is a piece of classroom work which involves learners in
comprehending
,
manipulating
,
producing
or
interacting
in the target language while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form.
Prabuh
argues that a task is an activity which required learners
to arrive at an outcome
from given information
through a process of thought
that can be regulated and controlled by the teacher.
A LOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CLT

A)
activities that involve real communication are essential
for language learning

B)
activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks to promote learning

C)
language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process

Fluency vs. accuracy?
It is argued by proponents of the TBLT that there is no evidence that the type of grammar-focused teaching activities used in L2 classrooms reflects the cognitive learning process employed in naturalistic language learning situations outside the classroom.
The key assumptions of TBLT
[1]
Emphasis on communication and meaning
[2]
Students learn by interaction
[3]
Activities and tasks that draw on practical
language
[4]
Activities and tasks are sequenced according to
difficulty
[5]
The difficulty of a task depends on a range of
factors
[6]
Making errors is natural
[7]
Lexical units are central in language use

Theory of learning
A)
Tasks provide both the input and output
processing necessary for language acquisition

B)
Task activity and achievement are motivational

C)
Tasks should be designed to facilitate the use and learning of particular aspects of langauge.

Task
Example
• listing tasks
students have to make up a list of things they
would pack if they were
going on a trip

• sorting and ordering
Ss work in pairs and make up a list of the most
important characteristics of an ideal school

• comparing
Ss compare ads for two different supermarkets
• problem-solving
Ss read a letter to an advice columnist and suggest a solution to the writer’s problem
• sharing personal
experience
Ss discuss their opinions to an ethical or moral dilemma
• creative tasks
Ss prepare plans for redecorating a house
Student role
1. Group participant

2. Monitor

3. Risk taker and innovator
Examples of pre-tasks
1. Pictures, texts and songs.

2. Brainstorming, comparing ideas and sharing experiences.

3. Eliciting vocabulary

Types of tasks:
Pedagogical
Real-world
(require the use of specific
interactional strategies &
specific language)
(reflect real-world
uses of language)
Post task
In the post task students select, identify and classify common words and phrases.

They practice language and phrases in the classroom.

Students build their own dictionaries.
ADVANTAGES

[1]
It is suitable for all levels
[2]
There is a lot of exposure to language
[3]
It allows meaningful communication
[4]
It helps students to overcome the language barrier and motivates them
[5]
Students are encouraged to use whatever language they know
[6]
Students learn practical language – collocation, everyday phrases, and patterns
[7]
While working in groups, students continuously interact speaking the target language

Types of post tasks
1. Students give a report.

2. Students repeat the main task ( they switch a group).

3. Students listen to the recording or watch a movie of fluent
speakers doing the same task.

4. A teacher gives feedback and evaluates the success of the task.

DISADVANTAGES
[1]
A lot of creativity is required from the teacher
[2]
Evaluation may be difficult for the teacher
[3]
Since it is student-centered approach, it requires much
commitment and engagement on the part of the student
[4]
Students accuracy might not be as good as their fluency
[5]
Various tasks must be prepared beyond tasks included in course books

Task Cycle

- Planning

- Report Analysis

- Practice
Planning
1) Students are given the task by the teacher, with clear instructions.

2) It is important to set time limitations

3) Depending on the task, they work either in groups or individually

4) Students plan their work and discuss their ideas. They divide the work among themselves


Report Analysis
1) Each group/each student present their work

2) Their work is assessed on the basis of both task completion and language accuracy

3) Students' work is discussed


Practice
This part may overlap with post-task activities. If there is such a need, or if the students express their interest in the task, it may be repeated, preferably with slight changes .
Full transcript