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Us History 2- Labor Strikes of the 1920's (Ch. 12-13 Project)
Transcript of Us History 2- Labor Strikes of the 1920's (Ch. 12-13 Project)
-During 1919, 3000 strikes occurred with 4 million workers walking off their jobs.
-Unions would be labeled revolutionists and communists by the media. I. The Boston Police Strike
II.The Steel Mill Strike
III.The Coal Miner's Strike Where: The streets of Boston When: September 9, 1929 http://www.uic.edu/orgs/cmhec/images/bigsteel.jpg http://www.workingclassheroes.me/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/BostonCopsStrike.gif Quote: "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time" People to know: Calvin Coolidge When:
September 1919 - January 1920 The Steel Mill Strike Results of Boston Police Strike: - $350,000 in property damage
-8 dead, 71 hurt
-Strikes are stopped
-1300 New Police are hired.
-Those who participated in the strike were fired and replaced.
-Discourage further strikes from a police force.
("Boston Police") During: After: -Government prohibited striking by saying it was against the war effort. Espionage Act.
("Labor and the labor movement, 1890-1930")
-The AFL (American Federation of Labor) agreed not to strike. Where: U.S. Steel
-Fewer work hours http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/Coming_out_of_the_smoke.jpg The Coal Miners' Strike When: November 1st 1919 Where: Nationwide Why: Low wages and long work days http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Keeping_warm.jpg *Note: All of these took place between 1919-1920* Decline of Labor Unions Reasons -Willing to work for low wages
-Organizing languages was hard
-Exclusion of African American workers During the 1920's, over 1.5 million members
dropped from their unions. John L Lewis People to Know: -Became the Leader of the United Mine Workers in 1920 - -Got a 27%wage increase for mine workers.
-Viewed as a national hero. Rise of the 1st African American Union The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Conclusion Results of The Coal Miner's Strike - Results of the Steel Mill Strike -300,000 quit their job.
-Workers were beaten
-Workday reduced to only 8 hours.
- However, the union was still not fully
recognized. Primary Source Analysis:
Open Letter to Pullman Company Author: A. Phillip Randolph Where: The Messenger When: June 4, 1927 Purpose: To convince
people to support their cause (Higher wages/
Fewer work hours) http://www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/Pullman%20Porter%205.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/The_Messenger_magazine_cover.jpg/200px-The_Messenger_magazine_cover.jpg Facts:
-Governor of Massachusetts. Later would become the 30th president of the United States in 1923, after Harding dies.
-Regarded as a hero for stopping "communism" and "anarchy". Quotes from primary source -Doesn't state what Mr. Pullman's thoughts are. Limited Perspective Unanswered Questions -27% wage increase
- Shorter workday
- 5 day work week "I am sure I need not tell you that porters would not always be content to work the long hours of 350 or more a month under that 11,000 mileage basis without compensation for over time. "Contrary to unfounded charges, none of the leaders of the Union are either Atheists or Communists" American Decades Primary Sources 1920-1929
http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=UHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&source=&sortBy=&displayGroups=&search_within_results=&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX3408900040 Sources: -What happened afterwards? Question: Why do strikes occur in the workforce? http://www.iup.edu/uploadedImages/Units/J_-_L/Libraries/Departments/Special_Collections/Windber%20Miners%2011(1).jpg http://www.learner.org/courses/amerhistory/images/archive/full/5975_fs.jpg http://www.hclib.org/pub/search/specialcollections/mplshistory/images/uncat_strike1.jpg