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Film Studies - Production Pracitices

Guide for your U26 Production Essay
by

James Mackney

on 22 September 2016

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Transcript of Film Studies - Production Pracitices

As you know from your Homework, different Production contexts effect the films produced ...
Even more factors that influence production
Factors that influence production
More Factors that influence production
Production contexts
The Product
For your Homework you looked at the different factors influencing the relationship between Production Context and Film
Production Context =

Time/ location the film was made
FILM PRODUCTION ARTICLE
...will change in another decade.
What is normal in one decade
It is crucial that you explain to your audience how your film examples were created by a range of determinants and influences that impacted their creation.
Financial determinants
Technologies of production
Distribution and exhibition
Trends in the industry
Genres at time of production
Stars power and representation
Social issues at time of production
Culture and politics of the country where they are produced
Regulatory issues eg BBFC
Synergies between films
Nature/ structure of the industry which produces them (Vertical/ Horizontal integration)
Hollywood
Bollywood
British
Developing countries
International co-productions
Independent
Once you have defined and explained how each production context effects the films it produces you need to do the following.

ACTIVITY
Select two film examples from two separate decades.
For LO2 you need to compare two films from two different decades
Nature/ structure of the industry which produces them (Vertical/ Horizontal integration)
AIM
OBJECTIVES
Empire and Little White Lies have joined forces to give young, talented writers a platform. They are looking for the best young journalistic talent to create fresh, engaging content. They also require you have to a solid knowledge of the legal and ethical constraints surrounding the film industry and making sure that this is accessible to a wider audience.
2.Understand the relationship between films and their production contexts
FILM PRODUCTION ARTICLE
To achieve part of the P2 you need to include reference to how the following production contexts can have different effects on films:
How does each influence the films they produce?:
This is the U26 P2 Homework.

If you don't upload this to your WordPress by 3rd June at 09:00 your overall grade for LO2 will be effected.
'Amelie' is set in France and stars French actors, but many pick-up shots and whole scenes were shot in a German film studio and the post-production work was undertaken by a German film company.
INTERNATIONAL CO-PRODUCTION
BOLLYWOOD
This is an informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
BRITISH
Great Britain has had a significant film industry for over a century.

While film production reached an all-time high in 1936, the 'golden age' of British cinema is usually thought to have occurred in the 1940s.
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
A developing country OR less-developed country is a nation with a low living standard, underdeveloped industrial base, and low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries
Cinema from such countries is rarer than developed countries and often seeks to represent/ highlight key issues to the world.
HOLLYWOOD
Hollywood has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century.

There are four main periods: the silent film era, classical Hollywood cinema, New Hollywood, and the contemporary period.
An independent film is a professional film production resulting in a feature film that is produced mostly or completely outside of the major film studio system.
In addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment companies, independent films are also produced and/or distributed by subsidiaries of major film studios.
INDEPENDENT
U26 P2 HOMEWORK/ TODAY'S OBJECTIVE

Due: Tuesday 3rd June @ 09:00
RESEARCH TIPS

Use Tumblr to search 'tag's e.g. Hollywood
Use Twitter 'hashtag's
Use Film sites such as imdb.com and filmsite.org
The purpose of the work is to help stress the importance of how different production contexts and factors influence the production of films.
All of these factors effect the creation of films

It's down to you to compare your two examples exploring the complex relationship between production contexts and films
Financial determinants
Technologies of production
Distribution and exhibition
Trends in the industry
Genres at time of production
Stars power and representation
Social issues at time of production
Culture and politics of the country where they are produced
Regulatory issues eg BBFC
Synergies between films
Nature/ structure of the industry which produces them (Vertical/ Horizontal integration)
You need to compare the two films from different production contexts

When/ where a film is made changes the film it is....

Technology changes.
Culture changes.
Audiences change.
Raunchy comedies from two different decades...
You need to explain, with examples, the production context of two films from two different decades
Financial determinants
Technologies of production
Distribution and exhibition
Trends in the industry
Genres at time of production
Stars power and representation
Social issues at time of production
Culture and politics of the country where they are produced
Regulatory issues eg BBFC
Synergies between films
Culture = the behaviours and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group
How much finance/ money was available to the film-makers?
Politics = the science of governing people/ practice or profession of conducting political affairs.
Was it made during a recession?
How did it get funding?
Who funded it?
What did the financiers want in return?
'The Class' (Cantet, 2008) is a semi-autobiographical film about a teachers' experiences in France with 'problem children'

The film analyses and explores the cultural and political circumstances that made them.
Is equipment now cheaper?
Can anyone now make a film?
Is it only Film Studios who can make films?
http://ashbournecollegefilmstudies.wordpress.com/
Exhibition of film = where it is shown.

'Exhibition is a commonplace, shared cultural activity highly visible in every city and town in Britain, constantly feeding the popular memory' (BFI)
Distribution is about releasing and sustaining films in the market place.
'Distribution is necessarily a collaborative process.

It requires the materials and rights of the producer and the cooperation of the exhibitor to promote and show the film in the best way possible' (BFI)
You need to consider how your two films from two different decades were distributed and exhibited to their audiences.

What was different?
USEFUL RESOURCE...
In the practice of Hollywood and other forms of industrial cinema, the phases of production, distribution and exhibition operate most effectively when 'vertically integrated'.

PRODUCTION
DISTRIBUTION
EXHIBITION

This is when the three stages are seen as part of the same larger process, under the control of one company.
From the early 1920s through the early 1950s, the US film industry had evolved into an industry controlled by a few companies - an 'oligopoly'
Classic Hollywood was led by the fully integrated Big Five studios:

MGM, Warner Brothers, 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures, and RKO.

These studios not only produced and distributed films, but also operated their own movie theaters (exhibition)
Vertical Integration (also known as common ownership) has been a main focus of policy makers because of the possibility of anti-competitive behaviours.

Laws are put in to place to make things fairer for producers outside of big studios.
'In the independent film sector, vertical integration does not operate so commonly. Producers tend not to have long-term economic links with distributors, who likewise have no formal connections with exhibitors' (BFI)
Sequels, Prequels, Reboots, Re-makes, Adaptations etc.
Why do you think there is a growing trend for synergy?
Has there been a change between the decades you are looking at?

Is there now more synergy?
Use the 'regulation' tag on my blog
Have laws changed?
Are films now more lenient in their depiction of sex, violence, gore etc.
Compare what your two films went through/ could get away with.
What trends are prevalent in the industry?

Did that influence the two films you are looking at?
Were sequels popular at time?
Was a particular genre popular?
Was a star particularly popular at the time?

Trends are often factors that influence the production of films eg 'Vampires are so hot right now' etc
Current trends...

Superhero films
3D Action films
Ensemble comedies
Monster films
Hacking/Surveillance themes
Sci-Fi Epics e.g. Interstellar and Arrival
When your films were in production - what were the genres that were most popular?

Why?

Did that have an influence on the films you are looking at?
What sort of power did the stars in your films have?

Were they the major selling point?

Were they owned by the studio? (In the Hollywood Studio System in the 40's Stars were tied to 7 year contracts)
What did they represent to their audience?

Did they reflect their time?

What do they tell you about the time the film was made?
REPRESENTATION is a key area of this assignment to gain DISTINCTION marks so use the 'representation' tag on my blog to guide you.
Do your films deal with any of the social issues taking place at the time of their production?
For the P2 you will have covered...

ALL of the Production Contexts Homework
and
HAVE NOTES on at least 6 of the following...

Financial determinants
Technologies of production
Distribution and exhibition
Trends in the industry
Genres at time of production
Stars power and representation
Social issues at time of production
Culture and politics of the country where they are produced
Regulatory issues eg BBFC
Synergies between films
Nature/ structure of the industry which produces them (Vertical/ Horizontal integration)
REMEMBER

This year =

P1, P2, P3, and, P4 are covered

Next year =

M1, M2, M3, M4, D1, D2, D3, and D4 are covered
U26/ P2 continued...
This was the
Homework
You do this now
ACTIVITY

Make lecture notes throughout the next part of the lesson.

You will achieve the full P2 if you cover at least 6 of the factors that influence production AND have completed your Homework
Compare your two films - was there any difference between them in how they got funded?
Consider why of all the genres these are popular ?

What is it about them that resonates with the audience?
The Empire Film Podcast has an interesting interview with the BBFC which may be useful
Vertical
It's safe to say things change between Production contexts...
Full transcript