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Copy of Time Orientation and Attention

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Majella Greene

on 25 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Time Orientation and Attention

Brian Johansen Time Perspective and Attention Time Perspective Past Present Future Basic Orientations Negative Positive Fatalistic Hedonistic Future Transcendental "I often think of what I should have done differently with my life."

"Painful experiences keep on playing in my mind."

Regret, shame, guilt, fear Past Orientation The past is a collection of real and perceived experience.

First Memory (share?)

Involvement in Families

Family traditions Decreased: Aggression, anxiety, depression, shyness

Increased: Conscientiousness, creativity, stability, energy, friendliness, self-esteem, happiness, reward dependence, future orientation, goal-setting Past-Positive Characteristics Past Negative Characteristics Decreased: Exercise, future mindedness, impulse control

Increased: Likelihood of gambling, lying, novelty-seeking, stealing, temper Pros and Cons Pros Cons Continuity of self
Positive Emotions
Best Predictor of Future Getting Stuck (fewer risks, less openness)
False fears Activities/Exercises Changing Past Orientation Who Was I? Worksheet

Reconstructing a Positive Past Worksheet

Gratitude List/Journal

Avoiding Rumination

Practicing Forgiveness and Self-Compassion

"A happy past is under constant construction... By changing the way you think about your past, you can change your future." Philip Zimbardo "There is much more good than bad in my past."

"I like family rituals and traditions that are repeated."

Nostalgia, "good ol' days," happiness, clinging "A person's day should be planned ahead each morning."

"It upsets me to be late for appointments."

Organized, reliable, punctual, successful, impulse control, denies pleasure. "I believe in miracles."

"Death is just a new beginning."

Spiritual, believes in afterlife, places hope beyond material world. Future Orientation Optimally High Optimally Low Born without it

Psychologically constructed state

Hopes, fears, expectations, aspirations

"Childhood prodigies rarely become successes in adulthood unless they have the discipline to spend endless hours at their craft."

"Complete all necessary work before tonight's play." Preconditions? Temperate Zone
Stable family/nation
Becoming educated
Young/Middle-Aged Adult
Having a Job
Use technology regularly
Being Successful
Role Models Future Time Characteristics More/increased likelihood Less/decreased likelihood Energy
Balances checkbook
Day Planner
Concern for consequences
Impulse control
Reward Dependence
Study time
Creativity Aggression
Alcohol Consumption
Drug use
Lying Zimbardo's Notes Future-Oriented People: Get regular medical checkups (healthier)
Get the job done
Are mindful of mortality (engaged lifestyle)
Are problem solvers
Make money
Persevere and rethink failure
Utilize hope The Negative Side of Future Orientation Feeling crunched for time (consequentially taking worse shortcuts)

Frustration with wasting time (impatience)

Sacrificing time with family and friends for success

Neglecting pleasure, not enjoying life Changing Future Orientation Who Will I Be? Worksheet

Cultivating Optimism/Faith in Self

Coping Strategies

Set and Pursue Life Goals

Experiment with New Habits


Plan while in the present

Relax and take breaks in between work. 30 minutes on/30 minutes off Present Orientation Willful neglect of impulse control
Only trusts what happens right now
Pleasure/experience over safety
Short-term Present Orientation Characteristics Increased Likelihood Decreased Likelihood Aggression
Sensation Seeking
Stealing Conscientiousness
Emotionally Stability
Concern for Consequences
Ego/Impulse Control
Preference for Consistency Hedonists have more: Energy
Gambling tendencies
Self-esteem And less: Punctuality
Studying tendencies
Anxiety than fatalists. Types of Present-Oriented People Hedonists (moderate) Fatalists (low) Holists (high) Seek pleasure and avoid pain

Stimulating, exciting, novel experiences

Avoid boredom, difficult work

Good friends, lovers, party guests

"I can control my life."

"I like to have fun." Seek pleasure and avoid pain

Novel experiences

More anxious, worried

"I am not in control of my life."

Learned helplessness

Often the result of underserved living environments Seek/avoid neither pleasure nor pain

Do not obsess over past or future

Less anxious, less pleasure-oriented

More of an Eastern perspective

"I choose not to judge my experience. I just live it." Holistic Changing Present Orientation Who Am I? Worksheet

Nurturing Relationships

Increase flow experiences



Informal Mindfulness Practice Attention "The act or state of applying the mind to something." Merriam-Webster Dictionary Mindlessness Attention: Chaotic
Feeling: Pleasure/Anxiety
Action: Daydreaming/Wandering (TV, browsing internet)
Easily distracted Concentration Attention: Narrowed
Feeling: Engagement/Ease
Action: Doing
Focus: Breath/object
Discriminating Flow Chance for Completion


Clear Goals

Immediate Feedback


Active, Feels Passive

Lose of Self-Consciousness

Lose Track of Time Mindfulness Attention: Broadened
Feeling: Peace
Action: Being
Focus: Nothing in particular
Nonjudgmental/Whole Formal Informal Types of Mindfulness Set aside time
Yoga Throughout the day
See List Pain x Resistance = Discontent So What? Why? Outcomes Tolerance Of Pain

Acceptance of Negative Emotions

Lessening of Bodily Tension



Savoring the Present

Perpetual Gratitude

Impulse Control

Less rumination Accepting reality as it is

"Grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change;
the courage to change the things I can;
and the wisdom to know the difference." Optimally Moderately High What's Your Primary Orientation? Give an example of Your Present-Future Conflicts What Activities Engage Your Flow Energy? Suggestions Concentration meditation/flow activity before work

Mindfulness meditation after work

Informal Mindfulness during mundane tasks "I have discovered that all man's unhappiness derives from only one source, not being able to sit quietly in a room." Blaise Pascal
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