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Transcript of WW1
The trenches had 3 parts to them.
First is the front line where most of the fighting took place.
Second line or the reserve and support trenches served as a home to the soldiers returning from the front line.
third trench was called the communication trench this is where men, supply, food, and water were transported. The idea of digging into the ground to give some protection from powerful enemy artillery and small arms fire was already widely practiced in the US Civil War, the Russian-Japanese war and other wars. Trench warfare began in September 1914 and ended when the Allies made a breakthrough attack in August 1918. Deaths occurred daily and randomly some by disease some by snipers that killed soldiers on tere first day. people shaved there heads to avoid lice because they are so hard to get rid of even when they washed there clothing the lice eggs hatched after a while because of the body heat this became known as trench fever. Rats came by the millions a couple could produce 900 a year and could grow to the size of cats because of all the dead bodies they could eat, soldiers killed them with guns or just beating them. some veteran soldiers also said the rats knew when a battle was about to happen because no one saw them during the battles trench foot was caused by walking around in the wet, trench floor On Christmas day 1916, soldiers from both sides came out of their trenches and played a game of football. When they first started digging them, each side tried to out-flank the other and they kept on digging and digging in what became known as 'the race to the sea'. General Haig, leader of the British forces, never went to the front line or set foot in a trench. Trench warfare began after the allied French and British forces stopped the German advance on Paris at the first battle of the Marne. The hill to the north east of Verdun was called the 'homme mort' which means the dead man, and it got 2 metres higher because of the build up of dead bodies as both sides tried to hold the high ground. IMPORTANT BATTLES OF WW1 First Battle of the Marne Battle of Verdun Battle of the Somme The Western Front Different fronts of World War 1 The Schlieffen Plan The Schlieffen plan was a plan
that would help Germany if there
were to be a two front war in the
future between the eastern front
and the western front. The creation of the plan The Schlieffen plan was created by a man named
count Alfred Von Schliffen to help with a two front
war east and west but then was later modified to a different form of strategy. This plan was supposed
to help Germany gain a swift victory. Before WW1 Alfred Von Schlieffen retired and a man named Helmuth Von Moltke to control and then later made some changes to the Schlieffen plan. Modification to the plan Helmuth Von Moltke agreed with the plan but not all of it. He thought some of the plan would never work so he changed some of the plans. The modification included that Germany would move to France and take over Paris before Russia can mobilize. First Germany would have to move through neutral territory such as Belgium to advance to France. Germany expected to only meet a little portion of a resistance. Then when WW1 started the plan would take action. The Schlieffen Plan Fails The Schlieffen plan fails later in the future because of several problems. The first problem was that Germany met more resistance they thought when moving through Belgium. The next problem was that Russia mobilized quicker than what they had expected. The next was that Great Britain interfered with the plan by help France and Belgium with the resistance. The battle of the final front to get to Paris was the battle of Marne. No side was successful and this lead to months trench warfare. Random Facts Helmuth Von Moltke was absent when the plan was taking place. This lead to another problem with the plan. The plan was predicted to never work do to the advancement with weapons and transportation. The Eastern Front The Gallipoli Front The grey shaded areas on the map shows the battlefield areas of the 1914-1918 Western Front from its northern end on the Belgian coast to the village of Pfetterhouse on the Swiss frontier at its southern end. The map shows the Franco-German border as it was in 1914 when the war started to began The long line of battlefields that makes up the Western Front runs through a wide variety of landscapes in south-west Belgium, north-eastern and eastern France. The battle lines wind their way across the countryside from the sand hills and flat, reclaimed sea level land on the Belgian coast in the north, to the mountain peaks at 1,400 metres (4,500 feet) above sea level in the Vosges mountain range at its southern end. The range of landscapes on the Western Front battlefields was made up or built with sand, clay, chalk rock, rivers, canals, valleys, cliffs, ridges and mountains, plains, forests and swamps. When visiting the battlefields it can be seen how the geological make-up of the ground and the landscape by far played a major part in influencing strategy, tactics, development of new weaponry and fighting techniques in the battles of the Western Front. The fighting on the Eastern Front was mostly between the Central Powers (the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires) and the Russian Empire. Later, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers and Romania joined Russia. There were several factors which changed the nature of fighting on the Eastern Front when compared to the Western Front In the "English-speaking world", the Eastern Front during World War One is generally ignored in favor of the Western Front fought in France and Belgium. This is luckless, since the Eastern Front in Eastern and Central Europe was every bit as worst as the war in the west and the Western Front cannot be fully understood without appreciating the effect the war in the east had on it. Hundred Days Offensive MORE IMPORTANT BATTLES Battle of Tannenberg Battle of Caporetto Battle of Gallipoli The Kaiserlacht The Brusilov offensive At 0730 hours on the 1st July, 1916, after a weeklong artillery bombardment launched the now infamous "Big Push" attack across the river Somme. With the French Army being hard-pressed to the south at Verdun the British intended to breakthrough the German defenses in a matter of hours.
The mistrust that High Command had of the so-called "New Armies" manifested itself in the orders to the troops to keep uniformed lines and to march towards the enemy across no-man's land. This, coupled with the failure of the artillery bombardment to dislodge much of the German wire, or to destroy their machine-gun posts, led to one of the biggest slaughters in military history. A major military engagement of World War I, the Battle of Verdun was a ten month long ordeal between the French and German armies. The battle was part of an unsuccessful German campaign to take the offensive on the western front. Both the French and German armies suffered incredibly with an estimated 540,000 French and 430,000 German casualties and no strategic advantages were gained for either side. The Battle of Verdun is considered to be one of the most brutal events of World War I, and the site itself is remembered as the "battlefield with the highest density of dead per square yard." On September 4, 1914, the rapid advances of the German army through Belgium and northern France caused panic in the French army and troops were rushed from Paris in taxis to halt the advance. Combined with the BEF (British Expeditionary Force) the Germans were eventually halted and the War settled into the familiar defensive series of entrenchment's. The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens. The offensive forced the German armies to retreat beyond the Hindenburg Line and was followed by an armistice. The Hundred Days Offensive does not refer to a specific battle or unified strategy, but rather the rapid sequences of Allied victories starting with the Battle of Amiens. The Eastern Front during the Great War tied up millions of German troops between 1914 and 1918 and a huge amount of resources that would have clearly given Germany an advantage if it had been available in France and Flanders. Although combat was not as brutal as it would be a generation later, but by the close of fighting there was an estimated 2 million battlefield casualties. On spring of 1915, combat on the Western Front had sunk into stalemate. Enemy troops stared at each other from a line of the opposite trench that stretched from the English Channel to the Swiss border. Neither opponent could attack from behind its enemy resulting in expensive and useless direct attacks on strong defenses. The war of movement that both sides had predicted at the beginning of the conflict had devolved into deadly stagnation. The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915-16, also known as the Battle of Gallipoli or the Dardanelles Campaign, was an unsuccessful attempt by the Allied Powers to control the sea route from Europe to Russia during World War I. The campaign began with a failed naval attack by British and French ships on the Dardanelles Straits in February-March 1915 and continued with a major land attack of the Gallipoli Peninsula on April 25, involving British and French troops as well as divisions of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC). Lack of sufficient intelligence and knowledge of the terrain, along with a fierce Turkish resistance, hampered the success of the invasion. By mid-October, Allied forces had suffered heavy victums and had made little headway from their first landing sites. The migration began in December 1915, and was completed in early January. Gallipoli is the third commemorative publication in the Australians in World War I series. It contains a selection of images and a brief history of the campaign. Italian Front When Italy entered the Great War on May 1915, it found itself on the ropes almost immediately. The country’s hyped army, but poorly trained and even worse prepared, (at the time of war Italy could muster thirty five frontline divisions) were supposed to beat their main opponent, Austria-Hungary which only had twenty five deployed divisions along their common border. Germany tried to launched a huge offensive to push back the others before American soldiers could get there. Of the 150,000 men in the Russian Second Army, only 10,000 actually managed to escape. There were over 30,000 Russian casualties and more than 95,000 Russian soldiers were taken prisoner. 500 Russian artillery guns were captured. The defeat at Tannenburg defeated Russia's whole Army. Samsonov committed suicide because he could tell nicolas II about the horrible defeat. The decision was made in London to keep the news away from the British public. The commander of Russia was Samsonov. The Russians saw early success they beat Austria and made them forget about winning the war so the attacks by Austria stopped and Italy JOINED the allies main reasons they were built:
-cover from bullets
-Shelter (machines gun were invented during WW1) Mustard Gas An unsuccessful attempt by the Allied Powers to control the sea route from Europe to Russia during World War I. The campaign began with a failed naval attack by British and French ships and continued with a land invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula involving British and French troops as well as the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC). Little and False intelligence and knowledge of the terrain, along with a fierce Turkish didn't help the invasion. After a while allied forces suffered a lot of casualties and had made little movement from their landing sites. Evacuation began and was completed early the following January. The Battle of Caporetto or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers, took place on October to November 1917, on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian army, which had practically no mobile reserves. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier. The battle led to the conference at Rapallo and the creation of a Supreme War Council, with the aim of improving Allied military co-operation and developing a unified strategy.