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Reform in Western Culture

7th Grade World Studies
by

Andrew Lewis

on 11 April 2015

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Transcript of Reform in Western Culture

Chapter 14
Reform in Western Culture
Section I
R
eform and
Radical
Movements
Industrial Revolution ushered in the need for reform
Some conservative, others radical
Britain and France allow more participation in gov’t and support a more stable society
Socialism
Popular Movements
Many applications
Reaction against capitalism, believed it to be unjust
Solution: Restructure society so that workers control the wealth they produce, social equality
Socialists promoted harmony and cooperation, work for the common good
Karl Marx
Christian – advocated the good news of achieving justice and equality; denied/distorted Biblical teachings
(1818-83) – student of philosophy and history, developed radical political views
• Expelled from several countries because of his support of violent revolution
• Met Friedrich Engels; wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848
Foundational Beliefs of
Marxism
Private ownership of property and land =
Violent revolution = the only solution

– common ownership of property, established dictatorship
Rejected spiritual things, thought it weighed the proletariat down, “the opium of the people”
History is a series of class struggles
Three different versions:
Wo
me
n's
Suf
fra
ge
Suffrage – the privilege to vote
Very popular during the 19th and 20th centuries
Women start working for that privilege
Fighting against resistance and reluctance in British gov’t
Same problem in America
Formed suffrage committees
Becomes the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies
Don’t receive suffrage until after WWI
Ly
di
a B
ec
ke
r
Temperance Movement
Britain
America
Christians and other citizens troubled by increased alcohol abuse
Temperance
– drinking in moderation
Abstinence
– no drinking of alcohol, more effective in preventing drunkenness
Division within the temperance movement
Moral persuasion v. Legal measures
Rioting due to beer sale restrictions
Prohibition laws overturned or rejected
Efforts continued
Similar struggles
Women’s Christian Temperance Union – educated the public of the evils of alcohol
18th Amendment – prohibition of alcohol (later repealed)
Reform in Western Europe
Marxism
Britain
Economic
Political
France
Still had high tariffs on imported goods
Protected domestic goods, high prices a burden
1846 – repealed the
Corn Laws
, allowed importation of cheaper grain and lowered food costs
Began a shift toward a free trade economy
Increase of trade = more prosperity
Population shifted towards cities, Parliament representation did not change
Reform Bill of 1832 – entitled the middle class to vote, working class excluded
Chartism – called for universal manhood suffrage by secret ballot, failed
Benjamin Disraeli: prime minister in 1867
Reform Act of 1867 – voting privileges granted to all male homeowners, doubled the voting population
Women receive the vote in 1928
William Gladstone – Disraeli’s political opponent
Focused on domestic reform, established a national court system and secret ballot voting
Parliament Bill of 1911 – House of Lords could no longer veto laws passed by the House of Commons
Politically unstable, plunged into Revolution in 1848
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte – nephew of Napoleon, elected as president of the Second Republic of France
1852 – gives himself the title of emperor, Napoleon III establishes the Second Empire, removed in 1870
France grows in several areas, industry, economy, freedom of press, labor unions, suffrage
Defeated in a war against the Germans, formed the Third Republic (1870-1940)
Jews in Europe
France
Germany
Anti-Semitism- Hostility towards Jews
Richard Wagner
Wrote an essay attacking Jewish composers
Opposed Jewish influence on German culture
Christian Social Party - formed to resist Jewish influence in Germany
The Dreyfus Affair
Alfred Dreyfus
Jew serving as a captain in French army
1894 - accused of passing military secrets to the Germans
Convicted and sentenced to life in prison
Real spy secretly tried and acquitted
Majority of France still condemned Dreyfus
Dreyfus eventually released from prison and resumed rank in the army
Russia
Jews fleeing persecution go to Russia
Welcomed because of their skills and work ethic
Does not last
Jews viewed with suspicion and jealousy
Violence and assassinations blamed on Jews
Pogrom - sweeping, targeted, and repeated attacks on Jews in Russia
Section II
Changes in Culture and Education
Shifting from idealist views to more realistic views of man
Works that better reflect what artists and writers saw
Public education more widely available
Culture
Romanticism
Dominated the first half of the century
Desired to imitate the past, especially chivalry
Emphasis on the mysterious and supernatural, freedom, nationalism, and nature
Paintings often peaceful scenes of rural life or landscapes
Music – full, emotion-filled romantic style
Beethoven probably the best-known composer
Art and literature emphasized emotion rather than reason
Right for a person to do what his heart told him
Realism
Replaces Romanticism by mid-nineteenth century, reacts against it
Emphasizes what life is really like, pictured life in realistic detail
Similarities with Romanticism – fails to portray correctly the sum of total life
Viewed life as pessimistic and hopeless
Education
Portrayed everyday life
Photography developed, contributes to realism in paintings
Visual Arts
Opportunities limited, churches run most schools
Public schools rising in Britain and France
Private education starts with the Sunday school movement
Starts as an effort to get young poor children to read
Over 1 million children attend
Britain
Public school system begins in 1833, Parliament votes to spend money to build schools for poor children
Requires children 5-10 to attend school
1893 – provides education for the blind and deaf
1918 – extends age to 14, part-time until 18
1871 – established the first separate secondary school for girls
Taught ancient and modern languages, math, science
Trade schools and colleges
Germany
One of the first states to provide a free primary education required for all children
Teacher certification and special teaching schools
Jules Ferry – Minister of Public Instruction
Formed republican school system, must attend until 15
Required, free, and secular
France
Writers
Sought to describe events that occurred in everyday life, sometimes sad or unpleasant
Charles Dickens – wrote about the negative aspects of Industrial Revolution, describes terrible urban environment
Leo Tolstoy – describes difficulties of living in Russia, War and Peace
Economic: government ownership of business
Philosophy: emphasizes the welfare of the group
Founded on the belief that man is good and society corrupted him
Utopian – people are products of their environment; education, labor reform, and other improvements will improve man’s character
Ends when the unite against the and violently overthrow the middle class to establish a classless society
proletariat
bourgeoisie
(laborers)
(capitalists)
evil
Communism
1866 – first Trans-Atlantic cable
Enables messages to be sent straight to Europe
Eventually able to send messages around the world
Communication – Telegraph
Physics, Chemistry, and Microbiology
Science
Phone – voice
Alexander Graham Bell – first to patent the telephone
Improved by Thomas Edison to improve clarity of the caller’s voice
Communication – Telephone
Inventors hope to apply steam power to ships
Initially slower than wind powered ships
Eventually replace wind powered ships, capable of carrying hundreds of passengers and cargo
Steamship
Britain develops the first known railway system
Starts as local systems, combined in the 1840’s
Becomes an important method of transportation especially during winter
Great speeds and reduced cost
Railroad
Transportation & Communication
Technology
Studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh
1831- 5 year voyage aboard the HMS Beagle
Concludes that God had little or nothing to do with creation
Observations provide the foundations for evolutionary thought
Believed all living things came from one life form
1859- Origin of Species
1871- The Descent of Man
Excludes God and the Bible from consideration as reliable sources
Charles Darwin (1809-82)
French chemist
Method of heating milk/liquids to slow development of microbes
Pasteurization
Disproved spontaneous generation
Louis Pasteur (1822-95)
Scottish scientist
Made major contributions to fields of physics and astronomy
Predicted the existence of radio waves
Combined the sciences of electricity, magnetism, and optics
James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79)
Section III
Progress in Science & Technology
Leonardo da Vinci’s drawings show human interest in flight
Wilber and Orville Wright
Dec 17 1903 – First successful flight at Kitty Hawk, NC
Flight
Powered by gasoline or diesel
Revolutionized transportation, automobiles developed through trial and error
Henry Ford – mass production process
Internal Combustion Engine
America imports steam engines and rails from Britain
Gradually developed rail line along the east coast
Strategic during the Civil War, supplies and troops
Railroad
Greek words:
tele – “far”
graphein – “to write”
Send messages over wire lines using code developed by Samuel Morse
Patents the first machine able to send coded messages
1861 – lines reach the west coast
Communication – Telegraph
The Automobile
Internal Combustion and Steam Engines:
How Do They Work?
Steam Engines
http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/steam1.htm
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine1.htm
Internal Combustion Engines
Full transcript