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Transcript of 1700's
Bilingual education is probably here to stay but it won't be without a fight. There are many different programs being tried and there are some states that outlaw it. There are success stories and there are groups that are fighting it. The U.S. is a melting pot and it continues to melt as more and more immigrants come to the U.S. and are beginning to outnumber the current English speaking population. Maybe that is their fear...
- Louisiana passes a law that authorized Anglo-French instruction in public schools.
-the New Mexico Territory allows Spanish and English to be taught in schools.
By the end of the 19th century, about a dozen states had passed similar laws. Elsewhere, where there may have not been any official action taken, many areas provided bilingual instruction in languages as diverse as Norwegian, Italian, Polish, Czech, and Cherokee.
Enrollment surveys at the turn of the 20th century reported that at least 600,000 primary school students (public and parochial) were receiving part or all of their instruction in the German language -- about 4% of all American children in the elementary grades. That's larger than the percentage of students enrolled in Spanish-English programs today. (Until recently, German was the dominant minority language.) http://www.rethinkingschools.org/restrict.asp?path=archive/12_03/langhst.shtml
- Congress prohibited Native-American children from being taught in their own languages. It took the U.S. government 70 years to overturn that law. The federal government and the states have taken steps toward banning bilingual education in several states and weakening it in virtually every state.
- The California Bureau on Instruction mandated that all schools teach only English
- Mexico and the United States sign The Treaty of Hidalgo. Mexican population increase dramatically. The Mexican American War was close to the end on September 13, 1847, later Mexico City was invaded by General Winfield Scott's American Army. The Treaty of Hidalgo was a peace negotiation between Mexico and United States where they negotiated divisions of land.
- Native American children were forced to leave their families and homes to attend boarding schools.
- William Harris promotes and argues for bilingual education. He is the first person to publicly recognize the benefits of bilingual education and the need for children to be taught in their first language.
- Attempts begin to legislate against German and in favor of English.
- Schools in St. Louis, Louisville, San Francisco, and St. Paul discontinue use of German
- Over 15 million children, many new immigrants, were enrolled in public schools.
- Congress passes the first federal language law,
The Naturalization Act
, which mandated that you have to speak English to become a citizen of the United States.
- Farrington vs. Tokushige; Overturned Hawaii's restriction on foreign language schools. Held that Japanese parents "have the right to direct the education of their own children without unreasonable restrictions."
- The Indian Reorganization Act was signed by President Franklin Roosevelt on June 18, 1934 and it secured certain rights to Native Americans (known in law as American Indians or Indians), including Alaska Natives.
- UNESCO issued an important resolution declaring that it was axiomatic that a child be taught to read in their home language.
- Civil Rights Act: Title VI prohibits discrimination based on race, color, or national origin in the operation of all federally an assisted programs.
Act of 1968
: The Congress passed the Bilingual Education Act under Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The purposes of the 1968 Bilingual Education Act were to (1) increase English -language skills, (2) maintain and increase mother-tongue skills, and (3) support the cultural heritage of the student" (Leibowitz, 1980, p.24). The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 represented the first national acknowledgment of some of the special educational needs of children of limited English proficiency. This act focuses on children's poverty who had little or no proficiency in English. The 1968 Bilingual Education Act provided training of bilingual personnel through grants, contracts, and fellowships to local educational agencies (LEAs), state educational agencies (SEAs), and institution of higher education (IHEs). The Bilingual Education Act or Tittle VII was passed by Congress and made Federal Law.
United States of America v. State of Texas, et al
. This desegregation case centered on the issue of discrimination and whether the San Felipe and Del Rio school districts were providing Mexican American students an equal educational opportunity. On August 6, 1971, Judge William Wayne Justice ordered the consolidation of the two districts. Because of the lawsuit, the federal court came down with a court order, Civil Action 5281, which eliminates discrimination on grounds of race, color, or national origin in Texas public and charter schools.
Aspira of New York, Inc. vs. Board of Education of the City of New York;
Aspira of New York; linguistic and cultural needs of Puerto Rican community in New York City and other Hispanics addressed deficient education of Spanish-speaking children in the city. The city public schools needed to provide core content instruction in Spanish for Puerto Rican limited-English-proficient students along with English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction. Provided development of Bilingual programs "for all NYC public school children whose English language deficiency prevents them from effectively participating in the learning process and who can effectively participate in Spanish."
Keyes vs. Denver School District No.1
; All school districts were determined responsible for regulations that resulted in racial isolation, including schools in racially isolated neighborhoods and gerrymandered attendance zones. This was the first court decision to recognize the right Latinos had to attend desegregated educational settings. Latinos were placed in the same category as African-Americans: "both groups suffer from the same educational inequities when compared with the treatment afforded Anglo students."
Serna v. Portales
; The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals found that Spanish surnamed students’ achievement levels were below those of their Anglo counterparts. The court ordered Portales Municipal Schools to implement a bilingual/bicultural curriculum to accommodate non-English speaking students. Texas Education Agency Bilingual/ESL Unit revised procedures for assessing achievement in August of 2004 to hire bilingual school personnel.
Lau vs. Nichols
; This suit by Chinese parents in San Francisco leads to the ruling that identical education does not constitute equal education under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. School districts must take affirmative steps to overcome educational barriers faced by non-English speakers. This ruling established that the Office for Civil Rights, under the former Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, has the authority to establish regulations for Title VI enforcement.
Guaranteed children an opportunity to a "meaningful education" regardless of their language background; if a student does not understand English instruction, they are deprived of a meaningful education. Language-minority students must be ensured access to the same curriculum provided to their English-speaking peers via "affirmative steps" (eg. bilingual instruction, English as a second language (ESL) classes, or other approaches). All U.S. school districts with more than 20 ESL students from a single language background were required to submit periodic reports to the Office of Civil Rights specifying the types of programs offered to children of language minorities.
- The National Association for Bilingual Education NABE is founded and it is the main U.S. professional and advocacy organization for bilingual education
- Jimmy Carter established the Department of Education. The Bilingual Education campaign was now able to step up its efforts through the newly established Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Language Affairs.
- No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB): The re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, appropriates funds to states to improve the education of limited English proficient students by assisting children to learn English and meet challenging state academic content and student academic achievement standards. Legislation for limited English proficient students is found under Title III of NCLB.
- The English Language Acquisition Act, or Title III was passed as part of No Child Left Behind Act and it was signed by George W. Bush.
- the Constitution of California recognized Spanish language rights.
- Castañeda v. Pickard; Reputed to be the most significant court decision affecting language minority students after Lau. The school district in Raymondville, Texas, was charged violation of language minority student's basic rights under the Equal Educational Opportunities Act 1974. The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals formulated three basic criteria for evaluating programs serving LEP students: (1) The school must be based on "sound educational theory", (2) the program must be implemented effectively, with adequate resources and personnel; and (3) the program must be evaluated and determined to be effective in teaching and in access to the full curriculum.
- European Immigrants settle in rural areas where they open and run their own non-English speaking schools offering English as a foreign language.
- Ohio becomes the first state to adopt a bilingual education law, authorizing German-English instruction at parents’ request which is the first official step to bilingual education.
- The first modern Bilingual Education program was developed for Spanish-speaking Cubans and Anglos at Coral Way Elementary School in Dade County, Miami, Florida. The program was supported by a grant from the Ford Foundation. It inspires the implementation of similar programs elsewhere.
- English immersion or “sink-or-swim” policies are the dominant method of instruction of language minority students. Few or no remedial services are available, and students are generally held at the same grade level until enough English is mastered to advance in subject areas.
- Meyer vs. State of Nebraska; Based on a Nebraska act passed in 1919, no person should teach any subject to any person in any language besides English. English should be the mother tongue of all children reared in Nebraska so that they may become citizens of "the most useful type" and so that public safety is not imperiled.
1982 & 1998
- Amendments to Title VII allow for some native language maintenance, provide program funding for LEP students with special needs, support family English literacy programs, and emphasize importance of teacher training. include increased funding to state education agencies, expanded funding for “special alternative” programs where only English is used, a three-year limit on participation in most Title VII , and the creation of fellowship programs for professional training.
- UNESCO adopted the term "multilingual education" in General Conference Resolution 12 to refer to the use in education of at least three languages: the mother tongue, a regional or national language, and an international language (UNESCO, 2003).
- California passes Proposition 187.
- Proposition 227 was passed in California. It requires all instruction in California schools be done in English. “The campaign was led by Ron Unz, a Republican candidate for governor in 1994 and a multimillionaire software developer, who dug deep into his own pockets and spend whatever it took to get the measure passed.” (Crawford, James. 1998)
- Proposition 203 was passed in Arizona. English for children law; Before Proposition 203, schools were free in terms of ELL instruction to use bilingual or immersion methods. The resolution stated that "all children in Arizona public schools shall be taught English as rapidly and effectively as possible.
Nations Defense Act which encourages students to study more technology and foreign languages.
Immigration Act which increased the flow of Asian and Latin immigrants to the U.S. as well as the need for bilingual education.
US Schools Try New Bilingual Education Method
Uploaded on Jun 16, 2010
This led to the
Equal Educational Opportunities Act
being passed since its proposal by Nixon in 1972.