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Chapter 5 Cognitive Learning Theories
Transcript of Chapter 5 Cognitive Learning Theories
A movement in the 1950's involving a combination of psychology, anthropology, and linguistics (along with Neuroscience, Computer Science, and Artificial Intelligence) . A response to behaviorism.
So what does that mean?
Cognitive Psychology focuses on the study of how people think, understand and know. It focuses on how people understand and represent the outside world within themselves and how our ways of thinking about the world influences our behaviour.
Cognitive Learning Perspective
Learning involves the transformation of information in the environment into knowledge that is stored in the mind. Learning occurs when new knowledge is acquired or existing knowledge is modified by experience.
Gestalt "Shape" or "Figure"
Gestalt focuses on the belief that human consciousness cannot be broken down into its elements. Led by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka. "The whole is different from the sum of the parts." Later on, principals of law were proposed such as: good form, figure or ground, similarity, proximity, closure, and continuity.
The Law of Good Form
When we perceive, we will always pick out form. Our perceptions are influenced by our past experiences. Also known as Pragnanz Law.
The Law of Figure- Ground Discrimination
Do you see the two faces? Or a vase? There are two forms of equal importance. The intended figure is if the picture wanted us to see the vase and the black background is the ground.
Law of Proximity and Similarity
Proximity: Things that are close together in space or time tend to be perceived as grouped together.
Similarity: Things that are similar are likely to form Gesalten as groups.
The Law of Closure and Law of Continuity
Closure: We tend to close in the gaps.
Continuity: Where figures are defined by a single unbroken line, they tend to be seen as entity.
The Information Processing Theory
Like a computer, a human mind is a system that processes information through the application of logical rules and strategies. Ways such as encoding (input) information, the storage for the information, and the retrieval (access) of information.
Multi-Store Memory Model
The first stage of the model is the
, involving receptors. This stage briefly holds on to information entering through our senses. The memory only lasts less than half of a second for vision and about 3 seconds for hearing.
Multi-Store Model continued
The second stage is
, also called working memory. It relates to what people think about at any moment in time. To help expand the capacity of short term memory the process of chunking in which grouping individual bits of information into some types of large meaningful unit.
the third stage with almost limitless capacity. Divided into subtypes of declarative (knowing that) and procedural (knowing how). And declarative memory is subdivided into episodic (times and places) and semantic memory (general facts).
Enhancing Long Term Memory
Teachers can help students by
Positive transfer- transfer learning using appropriate strategies. (Schema Theory- activate prior knowledge)
Dual Coding Theory- remember better when 2 processes are engaged. (Visual & Verbal)
Rehearsal- Maintenance(repetition) and Elaborative (expanded & embellished)
Instructional Strategies- singing, read aloud, discovery.
Memory gadgets/devices- mind mapping, graphic organizer, tree diagram. etc.
Forgetting is the inability to retrieve information
A passive loss of memory due to inactivity of rehearsal.
When the recall of one event is inhibited by the incursion of another event. Proactive: when you fail to learn subject B because of A.
Retroactive: learning of new material prevent recall of older material.
The Schema Theory
This views organized knowledge as an elaborate network of mental structures which represents one's understand of the world.
Prior Knowledge Linkages
Prior knowledge can facilitate or enhance transfer of a learning task. This influences the amount and proficiency in our learning.
Mental Scaffolding: to learn new information
Rote Learning Versus Meaningful Learning
Rote Learning refers to memorization without learning the concept. Whereas meaningful learning occurs when the facts are stored in a relational manner. This is called spread of activation. This occurs when knowledge is constructed by the learner, not the teacher to student.
The Attributes to Meaningful Learning
1. Active: interaction with our environment
2. Constructive: Reflect and interpret for meaningful experience.
3. Intentional: articulate one's own learning goals and monitor their one's own progress.
4. Authentic: engaging in real-life and complex problems.
5. Cooperative: Group experiences and conversations.
Learning Via Insight
The influence of our motivations on our selected perceptions and learning. Enactive (physically manipulate), Iconic (visual aids and learning experiences), and Symbolic (Utilizing abstract concepts).