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Leonid Brezhnev and the Soviet Union
Transcript of Leonid Brezhnev and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union Before Leonid Brezhnev Background information on Leonid Brezhnev Brezhnev's Rise to Power Follow-Up Activity After being elected to the Supreme Soviet in 1950, Brezhnev rose to power in the Communist Party from one position to the next with the help of Khrushchev.
In July 1964, he resigned from his position as Presidium of the Supreme Soviet to become Khrushchev's assistant as second secretary of the Central Committee.
In October 1964 he helped lead the coalition that forced Nikita Khrushchev to resign from power.
> Thus, he became first secretary of the Communist Party and, although in the beginning his power was shared through collective leadership, he managed to steadily emerge as a dominant leader.
In 1976, he had assumed the highest military rank of marshal, making him the only leader since Stalin to do so.
In 1977, he strengthened his power by ousting Podgorny, ending the system of collective leadership and making him once again chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which is the president of the U.S.S.R.
> He became the first person in history to lead both the state and the Communist Party. Take out your phone
Get ready to text your answer to the questions about what you've just learned.
>You will be shown a question and you must text the code that corresponds to your answer. Before Leonid Brezhnev came into power, the Soviet Union had been facing many economic problems.
Nikita Khrushchev, the person Brezhnev succeeded as first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, was relieved from his powers because of his failures in foreign policies and domestic affairs.
Before Khrushchev, Joseph Stalin had been in power, but he made severe damages to the Soviet economy with his collectivization method.
Both Joseph Stalin and Khrushchev attempted to improve the economic problems, but the reforms that were made were not very successful. Leonid Ilich Brezhnev was born in Kamenskoyke (now Dniprodzerzhynsk), Ukraine on December 19, 1906.
His parents and grandparents were factory workers in the local steel mill, where he began to work at when he was 15 years old.
Before joining the Communist Party in 1931, Brezhnev was an agricultural specialist, an economic administrator, and a local government official in Kamenskoye.
Brezhnev joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1931 and studied at the metallurgical institute in Kamenskoye. By: Sandra Gonzalez Leonid Brezhnev and his era are probably remembered most by:
>The Brezhnev Doctrine
>Era of Stagnation The Brezhnev Era: 1964-1982 A liberalization movement, called the "Prague Spring,"occurred in the Czech government in 1964, expanding freedoms of speech, assembly, and religion and granting greater tolerance of opposing political parties.
Brezhnev had warned the First Secretary Alexander Dubcek to halt these reforms, but he refused to.
However, he agreed to attend a meeting at the Czech border town of Cierna, where representatives from both sides came to settle the tension between the two.
A communique, an official statement, was published agreeing that the Soviets would ease off on Czechoslovakia in exchange for tighter control of the press.
However, the Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia in August 20, 1964.
The Soviet Union led Warsaw Pact soldiers as they invaded the city of Prague.
In the end, Dubcek was arrested and persuaded into ending the liberalization movement.
In April 1969, he was replaced by Gustav Husak, who agreed to comply with the Soviets and ended the remains of the movement. The Soviets Invade Czechoslovakia The Brezhnev Doctrine The invasion of Czechoslovakia resulted in the Brezhnev Doctrine, which was established to prevent similar independence movements.
The Brezhnev Doctrine stated that the Soviet Union would intervene, by force if necessary, in any conflict that threatened to overthrow or alter an existing socialist system.
> Policy of the Soviet Union preventing any Communist nation from replacing its government with one hostile to the Soviet Union.
As a result, no satellite government attempted reforms similar to the Prague Spring during the Brezhnev years. Here is a photograph of Soviet soldiers invading the streets in the city of Prague in Czechoslovakia. The Détente (1969-1972) The policy of the Détente is probably Brezhnev's most important contribution to Soviet foreign relations.
The purpose of the Détente was to ease the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union.
- SALT : In 1972 Brezhnev and U.S. President Richard Nixon signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty in the Soviet city of Moscow.
> The purpose of this treaty was to slow the buildup of anti ballistic missiles and strategic nuclear weapons in both nations. Here is Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter. The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan : As a result, the Soviet Union succeeded in achieving parity with the U.S.
in strategic nuclear capabilities.
-SALT II: In 1979, the second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty was agreed upon by Brezhnev and the U.S. President Jimmy Carter.
However, the U.S Senate refused to ratify the treaty, and pretty soon the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. As a result of the Brezhnev Doctrine, Brezhnev ordered troops to invade Afghanistan to intervene in the conflict between the Afghan communist government and the Anticommunist Muslim guerillas.
-The United States responded in many ways, but one of their actions led to the rise of the U.S. public enemy number one.
> The Rise of Osama bin Laden:
During the 1980s, the U.S. CIA aided bin Laden by sending funds, armaments, and CIA specialists to help support the mujahedeen, holy warriors, against the Soviets.
Bin Laden had traveled to the Afghanistan-Pakistan border in 1979 during the beginning of the war, and throughout the 1980s, he helped fund the training camps.
In 1988 he formed his international terrorist network, al Qaeda "the base," which was also funded by the U.S. (about $3 billion).
In 1990, when Iraq invaded Kuwait, U.S troops were stationed there to protect its oil-rich lands.
The stationing of troops in Muslim lands is what bin Laden claims to be the main cause of his jihad, "holy war," against America, which he declared on August 23, 1996.
>There were many terrorist attacks during the 1990s, leading up to the bombing of the twin towers on September 9, 2001, otherwise known as 911. The Soviet Union vs. the United States After the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union became the two greatest superpowers.
These two powers competed for preeminence, and space was a crucial area in which they attempted to surpass each other.
> Out of their competition grew what became known as the Space Race (mid-to-late 20th century), which began after the Soviets launched Sputnik, the first earth-orbiting artificial satellite, on October 4, 1957.
The Soviet Union had lagged behind the West in technological development.
Soviet leaders realized this and tried to fix it, but it wasn't until the 1960s when the U.S.S.R's research and development establishment expanded rapidly.
>Application of science and technology to military needs was one of the ways the Soviet Union attempted to catch up and transcend the West. Brezhnev's Economic Policy -Industrialization - After 1964, industrial production increased steadily but not as quickly as Brezhnev wanted, so many major contracts were signed, beginning in the late 1960s, with Western firms to build more factories in the Soviet Union.
-The eighth Five Year Plan - Due to good weather, there was economic growth in agriculture, boosting other areas of the economy such as industry.
>As a result, the standard of living began to rise, although not for long.
Bad weather returned in the 1970s, causing a shortage, which, along with the failure of central planning, hunger, alcoholism, and resentment of noticed injustices, helped cause a decline in the well-being of the individual.
As a result, living standards decreased and the growth of the economy began to decline.
>Corruption and the Black Market:
Economic planning for every aspect of Soviet life began in Moscow, and goods and services were distributed by government bureaucrats rather than through market mechanism.
>The large economic system supplied plenty of opportunities for bribery.
Shop managers and bureaucrats were likely to avert merchandise from state stores to sell on the black market. Background Issues Past Leaders Era of Stagnation The "era of stagnation" was a period of economic, political, and social inactivity in the Soviet Union that commenced during Brezhnev's rule, and continued under the rule of Yuri Andropov(1982-84) and Konstantin Chernenko(1984-85).
-After Brezhnev died, he was criticized and blamed for the progressive slide in living standards, extent of cronyism within the Soviet bureaucracy, and the inactivity that characterized the dispiriting Soviet life.
-Andropov made many reforms to help improve the situation of the Soviet Union, which were continued by Chernenko after his death, but scholars still debate whether or not these reforms were successful.
-It was not until Mikhail Gorbachev(1985-1991) came to power, when the effective reforms were finally made. Brezhnev's Domestic Policy Pros:
-Although Brezhnev did not pay much attention to domestic affairs, the standard of living improved for many Soviet citizens.
Housing: Construction of new housing was a continuous priority.
Food Prices: Thanks to government subsidies, the prices for food were kept low.
Medical care : Medical care was extended.
Jobs and Education : Technological development expanded in the U.S.S.R and between 1960 and 1969, research institutes increased from 1,729 to 2,388.
-By the early 1970s 1 out of every 250 people in the Soviet nation was employed in the field of science.
>the growth in the nation's science labor force was far greater than the growth in the nation's total labor force.
>15% of each annual college-level graduating class pursued a career in science.
-During Brezhnev's rule, the emphasis on military and aerospace industry expenses, along with the neglect of domestic affairs, affected the Soviet society.
His inordinate defense spending caused a severe decline in Soviet agriculture, healthcare, and consumer-goods industries that continued into the 1980s. Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev Osama bin Laden Nikita Khrushchev Joseph Stalin Model of Sputnik