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Different Philosophies of Education

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on 26 December 2013

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Transcript of Different Philosophies of Education

Philosophy of Education
Educators typically have their own individual philosophies that help guide them when drawing up curricula and structuring classroom discussions. These tend to be more approach-based, and are often much more personal.
Teachers are usually able to explain their own philosophies of education, but they are rarely written down and tend to adapt quickly to student needs.
by: Ms. Melissa T. Sodsod

“Philosophy of education”
can mean one of two related things: it is either
an approach to or a theory of learning
it usually sets out unified or widely accepted views of how education can be best achieved at pretty much any level
. Most schools have formal philosophies that guide the way teachers and administrators interact with students, parents, and regulatory officials, and in many cases these are written out and formalized as a way of streamlining or unifying everyone’s efforts.
Why Educational Philosophy is Important
The influence of Greek Philosophers Plato, and Aristotle still appear in education today. These two philosophers taught their students by influencing them to question the facts. In more recent time Mortimer Adler, and Robert Hutchins have been known to influence the perennial approach of education. They believed in teaching all students the same information and having the teacher initiate discussions to help the student question the validity of the topics.
2. Religious Perennialism-
Thomas Aquinas says Religious Perennialism is focused on the personal development of the student, and says that all learning could not come from within, because it always had to be provided as sensed signs that the student must perceive.
-school of educational thought promoted by
in 400 B.C.
Plato thought that
humans could be improved from within, by correcting their thoughts and discovering knowledge already there since birth
-focuses on reasoning and how a person can bring knowledge up from inside of himself
-the world exists solely in the minds of people and that
ultimate truth relies on a consistency of ideas
The more perfect our ideas become, therefore, the better we can serve the world.
At a school-by-school or classroom-by-classroom level, overarching philosophies of education can sometimes seem somewhat contrived. On a broader scale, though, the central beliefs and guiding principles of educational institutions can say a lot about a
culture’s value system
. Sociological scholars often spend considerable time looking at the educational philosophies of different countries, national regions, and economic classes in order to draw conclusions about larger social beliefs and priorities.
How schools, governments, and individual teachers approach learning often says a lot about how they view the world and students’ place in it.

Plato (427-347B.C.E.)
-Founder of the Academy the Republic
-outlines a plan for a perfect society ruled by the philosopher king, knowledge consistent with temperance and justice…for women as well as men
-Plato took Socrates’ maxim

“virtue is knowledge”

and extrapolated it into an elaborate theory of knowledge which envisaged a level of reality, beyond that immediately available to the senses, but accessible to reason and intellect.

-school of educational thought promoted by Plato's student, Aristotle (384-322B.C.E.).
-holds that the only reality is the materia
l world
, that
study of the
outer world
is the only reliable way to find
-the world is an objective phenomenon which our minds must adhere to
-We achieve greater and greater knowledge through proper study of the world

This philosophy was the progenitor of the scientific method, a system of inquiry relying on objective facts.
Aristotle (384-322B.C.E.)
Founded the
, the first person to
classify knowledge by dividing and subdividing, developed syllogistic,
deductive logic

A.S. Neill is perhaps the most noted influence when it comes to the existentialism philosophy being applied in a school environment. Neill helped to promote existentialism with the creation of his Summerhill School. Jean Paul Sarte along with Soren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzche helped to strengthen the popularity of the existentialism movement. Each of these famous men contributed to the belief that it was
“not just the mind that needed to be educated, but the whole person.”

Jean Paul Sarte
Soren Kierkegaard
Friedrich Nietzche
of Education
As interest in space grew, so did the interest in the essentialism way of education. Even in today’s society we see President Bush pushing this form of educational philosophy with his “No Child Left Behind Act.” All throughout education history, society has tended to go back to questioning the “traditional” approach of going “Back to the Basics.”
2 kind of Perennialism
in Education
In the 1920′s with the founding of the Laboratory School, John Dewey created the foundations of the progressive education movement. In this school both John Dewey and his wife taught children to learn by doing. He felt that learning facts wasn’t the only way to educate. John Dewey realized that not every student could learn by the same approach. Perhaps, it is this reasoning that made him incorporate several different methods into educating students at his school.


-an existentialism school didn’t enforce formal education
-it nurtured the creativity, and individuality of the student
-it was felt that in time a student would mature by themselves, and decide what direction was suitable to pursue
-in an existentialist school, children would be given a variety of subjects to choose from

Vocational courses were to teach the student about themselves, and not to prepare them for a future occupation.
The student pursued the subject of their choice, learning method, and worked at their own pace.
They received one-on-one guidance from their teacher.
Jean Paul Sarte
Alexander Sutherland Neill
Socrates (470-399B.C.E.)
Philosophy was a way of life to Socrates Socratic dialogue,
dialectic method of questions and answers…
what makes humans sin is the lack of knowledge
John Watson is known as the founder of the behavioral movement. His belief was that any human being could be reprogrammed to acquire any skill. This theory was backed up by the experiments of both Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner. Pavlov trained dogs to respond to different stimuli. Skinner created a learning machine that would use operant conditioning to train students to learn. Through experimentation, these psychologists realized that they could both recondition and condition the responses of their subjects.

• refers to the "traditional" or
"Back to the Basics" approach to education.
• It is so named because it strives to instill
students with the "essentials" of academic
knowledge and character development.
• The term essentialism as an educational
philosophy was originally popularized in the
1930s by the American educator

1. Secular Perennialism-
As Robert Hutchins and Mortimer Adler says in secular Perennialism, the word perennial suggests something that lasts for an indefinite long time, recurs again and again, or is self-renewing.
This kind of Perennialism education comprises the humanist and scientific traditions. The important thing in secular Perennialism is learning to reason. Secular Perennialism also advocates using original work in education.

In perinnialism, the student input is important. Using this approach helps the individual thinker in each
student blossom
Educational Philosophy

Ideas, attitudes, and beliefs about epistemology (nature of knowledge), society/culture, the individual, and learning.
These foundational elements control the content and organization of the curriculum.
Our views toward these factors make up our philosophy of education.
Charles.S. Pierce (1839–1914)
William James (1842–1910)
Bottom: L-R
John Dewey (1859–1952)
George Herbert Mead (1863-1931)

Charles .S. Pierce is credited for the creation of pragmatism but William James pushed pragmatism more so and is who the concept is generally associated with.
John Dewey’s views on pragmatism are known as
. Dewy’s view suggests that
thinking is
not the search for truth
, but rather an
activity aimed at solving individual and social problems
to achieve a satisfactory relationship with the environment
According to pragmatism, truth is what is
practical and useful
. Thus, something is deemed “true” if it is practical and it works and “untrue” if it does not work.
Pragmatism is philosophy that has various forms, but it generally stresses the practical consequences as constituting the essential criterion in determining meaning, truth, and value. Pragmatists reject the idea that absolute, fixed truth exists. In their view truth is relative to a time and place and purpose and is always changing in light of new information.

Major Philosophical Views
A. Perennialism
Rooted in realism
3Rs, moral and religious training; Greek, Latin, grammar, logic and geometry; the liberal arts.
Expounds the past and teaches universally agreed upon knowledge and cherished values of society.
Teacher is a master of subjects and guides discussion.
Common curriculum for all students; student interests are irrelevant.
B. Essentialism
Rooted in idealism and realism
Curriculum should be geared to the fundamentals or essentials.
3Rs at elementary level; 5 core subjects at high school.
Not rooted in the past; concerned with contemporary scene.
Rejects electives for their costs.
Parallels today's secondary schools with academics and cognitive skills + computers.
C. Progressivism
Rooted in pragmatism
Reform social and political order in society (early 20th century).
How to think; not what to think.
Teach problem solving, inquiry, cooperation and self-discipline.
Teach through activities, experiments, problem solving, projects and thematic approaches.
D. Reconstructionism
Rooted in existentialism
Emphasizes society-centered education; appropriate for a society in crisis - some believe our society and international society today.
Curriculum emphasizes cultural pluralism, equality, and futurism.
Look at global issues and the larger social order.
Study empirical analysis and scientific approaches plus social, political and economic ideology.
-not a fully developed philosophy of life or of education.
-Many writers view it as
only an extension of progressivism
, the educational philosophy.
-Like progressivism, it is based on the “pure” philosophy of pragmatism.
-reconstructionists agree that
everyday, personal experience constitutes reality
The reconstructionist claims that truth is what works, and we arrive at truth through a process of trial and error.
The axiological question asks: “What is good and beautiful”?
The reconstructionist’s answer to this is
whatever the public consensus says it is!
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