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PPCP's for Educators

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Melissa Mullins

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of PPCP's for Educators

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Ideas for Educators
PPCP's on the Blue Planet
What are PPCP's?
How do they get into water?
Does conventional wastewater treatment remove them?
Activity: Urban Water Cycle
What natural processes in the environment can transform PPCP's?
Activity: Incredible Journey
Where (and at what concentrations) have PPCP's been found in water?
Demo: Reaching Your limits
What does research tell us about environmental impacts of PPCP's ?
What is Sea Grant?
Focus Areas:
Sustainable coastal development
Healthy coastal ecosystems
Safe and sustainable sea food supply
Hazard resilient coastal communities
The National Sea Grant College Program includes 32 state Sea Grant programs located in every coastal and Great Lakes state and Puerto Rico.
Administered by NOAA, Sea Grant focuses on economic and environmental issues in coastal communities.
Baylor University
Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR)
What can be done to minimize the impact of PPCP's to the environment?
Courtesy of Marti Martz, Pennsylvania Sea Grant
Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCP's) include

Prescription and over-the counter therapeutic drugs
Veterinary drugs
Sun-screen products
Diagnostic agents
Nutraceuticals (e.g., vitamins)
Source: USEPA, http://www.epa.gov/ppcp/basic2.html
Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CEC)

Chemicals in water previously not detected OR
Detected at levels significantly different than expected
Risk to human health and the environment associated with them may not be known
Includes PPCPs, perfluorinated compounds and others

Source: USEPA http://water.epa.gov/scitech/cec/
Activity: Sum of the Parts
Demo: Drop in the Bucket

Human activity (including excretion, bathing, dumping medicines down drain or toilet)
Residues from pharmaceutical manufacturing (well defined and controlled)
Residues from hospitals
Illicit drugs
Veterinary drug use, especially antibiotics and steroids
It isn't neccessarily designed to (focusing on solids and contaminants like nutrients)
However, processes occuring in WWTP may remove PPCP's; effectiveness depending on specific chemical and treatment process:
Source reduction solutions
Reducing overprescription of medications
Proper disposal of medications
Becoming an informed consumer
Green Chemistry/ Green Pharmacy
Treatment Options
Improved "engineered" wastewater treatment options
Bio-remediation type options: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS
Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant maintains a PPCP website: http://web.extension.illinois.edu/unusedmeds/index.cfm
CURRICULA for classroom teachers and
the Rx for Action Blog among other resources!
Source: USGS http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc/transport_fate.html
Source: USGS http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc/environmental_occurrence.html
Human Therapeutic Plasma Levels of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Sertraline Decrease Serotonin Reuptake Transporter Binding and Shelter-Seeking Behavior in Adult Male Fathead Minnows . Valenti et al. (2012)
Collapse of a fish population after exposure
to a synthetic estrogen. Kidd et al. (2007)
Figure 4. Mean velocities of adult male Pimephales promelas during oscillating periods of light and dark conditions following a 28-d study with
Fig. 3. Length frequency distributions of fathead minnow captured in trap nets in reference Lake 442 (A) and Lake 260 (B)
Microbial resistance
Pyrosequencing of Antibiotic-Contaminated River Sediments Reveals High Levels of Resistance and Gene Transfer Elements
Erik Kristiansson et al. (2011)
Figure 4. The abundance of resistance-carrying plasmids in environmental bacterial communities exposed to antibiotics.
Both point and non-point sources may contribute to PPCP's in the environment
PPCP's are often found in WWTP effluent or elevated downstream of WWTPs.
What factors can contribute to the persistence of PPCP's in the environment?
- Constant re-supply (even if at low levels)
Effects of persistent exposure to low levels over life cycel of aquatic organisms often unknown
-Complex mixtures and possible synergistic effects
-Intermediate or breakdown products may be problematic
- Bioaccumulation and biomagnification may occur
in some cases
- Over the next few decades, decreased instream flows to Texas bays and estuaries will
occur in response to a doubling of the Texas population and climatic variability.

An increasing proportion of base inflows to the Texas coast are projected to be
dependent on effluent discharges from wastewater treatment plants.

Though these effluents contain a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals and other
Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs), information on hydrologic loading of these
contaminants to Texas coastal systems and associated risks to aquatic life are not known.

This study is leveraging previous and ongoing efforts at Baylor to perform fundamental
research that is critically needed to support future environmental management efforts to
sustain healthy coastal ecosystems and the safety of fisheries.

Project Objectives:

1. To determine the seasonal loading of targeted CECs to Texas coastal systems

2. To determine the accumulation and trophic transfer of CECs in Texas coastal systems

3. To predict risks of CEC exposure to fish residing in Texas coastal systems
Assessment of full-scale natural systems for the removal of PPCP's from wastewater in small communities Hijosa-Valsero et al. 2010
Full transcript