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PSP_Does Music Enhance Learning?
Transcript of PSP_Does Music Enhance Learning?
tape silence Mozart Sonata Improved IQ score by 8-9 points 25 studies Vaughn 2000 + modest positive association number of possible reasons socioeconomic background and quality of school disadvantaged children 7 years of age musicians who commence study before age seven have enlarged Corpus Callosum and right Motor Cortex (Schlaug, et al, ….).
Musical perception is processed in the right hemisphere of the brain, which is also responsible for spatial cognition and long term sequencing,
therefore there is a physical relationship between music and spatial processing (Roederer, …..) music itself is based on mathematical reations understanding music requires some understanding of rations and repetative patterns hetland, 2000, if learning music enhances spatial-temporal reasoning, then it may also enhance understanding of mathematics - geometry and proportional reasoning (Graziano et al 1999. Mozart also seems to be the only music that stimulates areas of the brain, that control fine motor coordination, vision and higher thought processes, this could, perhaps, explain improved spatial reasoning (Shaw & Bodner) Mozart effect Speculation about the positive effects of music on young babies suggests that it can help certain types of cognitive thinking by creating new neural pathways in the brain (Bales, 1998). One theory about these brain reactions is that the constant pattern of notes and fluctuations in Mozart triggers a particular cognitive strategy in the listener, which itself remains constant (Marsden, 1987). John Hughes 1998 analysed music to find patterns found Mozart had highest prevalence of 30 second wave peak may trigger strong responses as it is similar to certain types of brain patterns supported in later research by Kliewer 1999 Lamb and Gregory 1993 Published a study on the relationship between the ability to discriminate musical sounds and reading. Shaw and Rauscher, (1997)
playing an instrument and singing
noticeable long term effect in memory recall Remembering a product name from an audio advertisement against various background sounds. slowing extracommunication thoughts random thoughts that would interfere with retention in an incidental learning situation. music was occupying spare processing power in the brain The results showed that quiet background music produced the best results. Mood enhancement Ivanov and Geake 2003 How did listening to music affect task based skills? no music 90 dB Cuing and mnemonics nursery
rhymes learning the alphabet Wolfe 1983 How the brain works. Just before birth the brainmakes more brain cells than it needs. Soon after birth the brain makes more connections than it needs. Many of the most significant
connections are forged for life by the age of 3 years - some by 6 months. Connections are pruned in response to learning and experience. This brain scan of a normal child shows the connections of the brain cells by age 2. By the age of 3 the brain has formed approximately 1000 trillion brain cell connections. They explained the results as a possible ‘mood enhancement’ and bringing some cohesion to the normal background noise of the school (Ivanov and Geake, 2003). A review of 16 Mozart Effect studies by Chabris in 1999 concluded that the real reason some students do better may be due to ‘enjoyment arousal’, music improves mood so they perform better. All the early research used just one piece of music,Sonata for two pianos in D major (K 448) Modern film music Smith, (1985) The Circuit Song Batteries, bulbs, wires and motors, wires and motors.
Batteries, bulbs, wires and motors, wires and motors.
A circuit needs most of these things
Batteries, bulbs, wires and motors, wires and motors. Batteries, connected to the bulb, to the bulb
Makes the light bright and completes the circuit,
Batteries, connected to the bulb, to the bulb.
Same result when reinstated Children achieving good scores in pitch discrimination also did well in phonemic awareness and reading performance. Spyhiger
increased musical education wth less language and maths
improved in reading and did no worse than pupils with increased maths and language, but no music education. 4000 sources Those with hyperactivity showed little or no improvement. Those with emotional and behavioural disordershowed a marked improvement. quiet background music
instrumental Are we missing an opportunity? enhance mood
aid recall and concentration Thank you for listening Olsen 1997