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Organic Chemistry - 8th grade

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William Begoyan

on 15 November 2016

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Transcript of Organic Chemistry - 8th grade

Organic Chemistry 8Th grade
By: Mr. Begoyan
Page 25 in your ISN
Avid EQ: Why is Carbon so important?
Life is Organic
Organic chemistry is the study of the element
carbon
.
Carbon is important due to its unique ability to combine with itself and many other elements in a variety of ways.
Due to its 4 valance e-, carbon can have up to 4 bonds, being able to form into long chains.
Pure Carbon
There are 4 known forms of pure carbon
Graphite
Diamond
Fullerene
Discovered in 1970.
Carbon arranged as a hollow sphere.
Pages 292-323 Your textbook
Nanotube
A cylindrical form of a Fullerene.
Very strong, very light.
Organic compounds
Any compound that contains
carbon
is known as
organic
.
Many organic compounds have similar melting and boiling points, odor, conductivity, and solubility.
Organic compounds make up the bulk of all living beings.
Muscle, bone, skin, fat, and plant matter are all made of organic compounds.
Organic compounds can be found in non-living matter as well, such as paper, wool, cotton, silk, natural gas, and crude oil.
Many organic compounds we use today are synthetic or man made.
Gasoline, plastics, detergents, and polyester are all synthetic organic compounds.
Many synthesized organic compounds, unlike natural organic compounds, resist breaking down.
Proper recycling of these compounds is crucial.
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
are organic compounds made of only 2 elements, carbon and hydrogen.
All hydrocarbons don't dissolve well in water, and are all highly flammable.
All fossil fuels are hydrocarbons.
is the simplest hydrocarbon
Butadiene
Ethane
Hexene
Benzene ring
C
H
2
6
C
H
4
4
C
H
6
6
Isomers and Hydrocarbon Saturation
Questions Part 1
1. What is organic chemistry?
2. Why is carbon so special?
3. What are some forms of pure carbon?
4. What are organic compounds, and what properties do all organic compounds share in common?
5. Where can you find organic compounds?
6. What are hydrocarbons?
Many organic compounds have
isomers
.
Isomers have the same chemical formula (same number of elements present), but a different structural configuration.
These differences can result in either nominal to drastic changes to the compound's characteristics.
When a hydrocarbon has only single bonds, it is called
saturated
. There are no available bonds for extra hydrogen.
If a hydrocarbon has a double or a triple bond, it is called
unsaturated
. The double and triple bonds can take in more hydrogen.

Hydrocarbons with all single bonds end with "
ane
", having one or more double bonds give the ending "
ene
", and triple bonds give "
yne
".
Propyne
Substituted Hydrocarbons
If just one atom of an element is switched in for a hydrogen in a hydrocarbon, a new and different compound is formed.
This modification is called a
substituted hydrocarbon
.
# of carbons determines the prefix
Meth - 1

Eth - 2

Prop - 3

But - 4

Pent - 5

Hex - 6

Hept - 7

Oct - 8

NOn - 9

Dec - 10

Thus, pure single bonded hydrocarbons are known as
alkanes
, double bonded hydrocarbons as
alkenes
, and triple bonded as
alkynes
.
Halogen Substitution
:
substituting a halogen for a hydrogen
C
+
Cl
H
H
H
H
2
C
H
H
H
HCl
Cl
+
Alcohols:
substituting a hydroxyl (oh-) group for a hydrogen
C
+
O
H
H
H
H
2
Methane > Chloromethane
C
H
H
H
H O
OH
+
2H
+
2
Organic Acids:
substituting a carboxyl (Cooh) group for a hydrogen
Methane > Methanol
C
+
O
H
H
H
H
C
OH
carboxyl group
C
H
H
H
H-
+
O
C
OH
Methane > Acetic Acid
Esters:
Made by chemically combining an organic acid and an alcohol. Esters have pleasant, fruity smells.
Polymers and COmposites
Polymers
are repeating units of chemical compounds (called monomers) that are linked together.
Polymers are formed through a process known as
polymerization.
Natural polymers include amino acid chains that make up proteins.
Synthetic polymers make up materials that we use everyday, including all types of plastic.
Composites
are materials made from two or more substances with different physical or chemical properties, that when combined, produce a material that improves on the original's properties.
Unlike alloys, individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure.
Many composites use organic compounds for their strength and weight.
Life with Carbon
All life requires the following 4 organic compounds
Carbohydrates
(sugars) have the formula of
Sugars can be made of a single monomer (simple, like glucose), or thousands of monomers (polymer, complex, like cellulose).
C
H
O
6
6
12
Amino acids
contain
C
,
H
,
O,
and
N
.
Amino acids form long polymers that become
proteins
.
Lipids
contain
C
,
H
, and
O
.
Lipids are primarily long hydrocarbon chains with specific head units.
Nucleic Acids
contain
C
,
H
,
O, P,
and
N
.
Nucleic acids are part of long polymers that become
DNA or RNA
.
Questions Part 2
7. What is an Isomer?
8. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons?
9. What is a substituted hydrocarbon?
10. What are the 3 different substitutions? What is an ester?
11. What is a polymer?
13. What are the four organic compounds required by life?
12. What is so special about composites?
Homework
On page 32, visually describe the following:
1. hydrocarbons (different types, with single, double or triple bonds),
2. isomers
3. polymers.
Naming Hydrocarbons & IUPAC
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry is the globally recognized governing body for chemical science.
IUPAC has come up with rigid rules for naming all hydrocarbons.
1. Identify the longest carbon chain. This chain is called the
parent chain
.
2. Identify all of the groups attached to the parent chain, called
substituents
(they get an "yl" ending).
3. Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the
lowest
numbers.
4. If the same substituent occurs more than once, the location of each point on which the substituent occurs is given(write Di for 2, Tri for 3; Dimethyl, Triethyl).
5. If there are two or more different substituents they are listed in alphabetical order (ethyl before methyl).
6. A cyclic (ring) hydrocarbon is designated by the prefix
cyclo-
which appears directly in front of the base name.
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
H
H
Heptane
1
2
3
4
6
7
5
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
H
H
H
H
C
Old Name: Iso-Octane
Correct
IUPAC Name:
3
Methyl Heptane
Incorrect
IUPAC Name:
5
Methyl Heptane
Correct
IUPAC Name: Hept-
3
-ene
Incorrect
IUPAC Name: Hept-
4
-ene
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
H
H
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
8
3
Ethyl
2
Methyl oct-
2
-ene
Number from the side closest to the Substituent
wrong
Right
Number from the side closest to the double bond
wrong
Right
Parent chain
Type of bond
location of bond
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
Double and triple bonds can be created through a
dehydrogenation
reaction.
+
H
2
This can be reversed through a
hydrogenation
reaction. This is how hydrogenated oil (margarine) is created.
Catalyst
Parent chain
Type of bond
Type of substtuent
Substituent location
Full transcript