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Reproduction

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by

Kiera Dalton

on 28 March 2013

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Transcript of Reproduction

REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Binary Fission: Binary Fission is when a single-celled organism such as bacteria splits itself into two creating another identical individual. By: Kiera Dalton and Jodelle de Dios Asexual Reproduction only involves one parent. That organism makes offspring or copies of itself that is exactly like the parent. The characteristics the offspring inherited is identical to the parent’s. Budding: Organisms for example hydra and yeast reproduce by budding. Budding is when a parent produces a small bud that is identical to itself, for animals such as the hydra it detaches itself and grows to be identical to the parent. Yeast: unicellular fungus.
Hydra: an aquatic animal that has a stalk like body with a tentacle ring around it’s mouth. Spore Production: Some organisms such as large amount of fungi, certain molds, and plants that don’t produce flowers reproduce by producing spores. An organism can produce many spores and each spore will develop and will be identical to the parent. Spores are somewhat similar to seeds, but spores just split cells into more and not by the union of cells or fertilization of others. Vegetative Reproduction: Most plants are able to reproduce through vegetative reproduction. This is when a plant does not need or involve the process of making seeds. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Sexual Reproduction: Commonly involves 2 individuals. A mix of characteristics of these individuals are found in their offspring. A mix of characteristics are also found in the next generations. Most species involve male and female individuals but few species do not involve two individuals classified as either or. In plants, sexual reproduction involves the joining of two particular cells called gametes. Gametes: Gametes are reproductive cells that unite during sexual reproduction to form a new cell called a zygote.-contains a set of chromosomes- female reproductive cells and male reproductive cells. ex. sperm and an egg cell Zygote: To be precise, zygote is the result of the joining of the two gametes. ex. first cell of a new species or individual. Embryo: An Embryo is the result of the continuation of the cells' division. The result of the zygote's and the cleavage's continuing division. Pollen carries the male gametes of a plant. Pollen: stamen is the male part of a plant. Stamen: A filament is the stem of a plant that bears the anther in a stamen. Filament: An anther is a part of the stamen of a plant. Contains and makes pollen. Anther: A pistil is the female part of a plant. Pistil: A stigma is part of the pistil. Pollen is transported here. Stigma: A style is the support between the stigma and ovary of a plant. The style connects these two together. Stigma: A reproductive organ which is part of the pistil.Where egg cells are made and stored. Ovules are stored in the structure of a plant. Ovary: Seed: POLLINATION: pollination is the process of pollen transferring from the anther of the stamen of a plant to the stigma of the pistil.
cross- pollination is the process of pollen from one plant transferring to the stigma of another plant, transported by wind, animals or water. CROSS-POLLINATION: Cross-fertilization is the process of pollen producing a tube with great length that will eventually transport down the style into the ovary which consists of the ovules. CROSS-FERTILIZATION: What comes with Vegetative Reproduction? Cutting: a cutting is a part of a plant that is cut off from the parent plant to be put into soil of some sort to eventually develop into a new plant. Runners: This is one type of vegetative reproduction. A runner is a long, slender stems that grow alongside the soil which produces new plants among them. For example, runners, such as strawberries, continue to grow leaves, flowers and eventually more strawberries on nodes (a joint in the stem) on the runner. Tubers: is usually a round, thick stem that grows underneath the soil. An example of a tuber is a potato and bulbs where if planted stems of plants grow out them, like daffodils are also forms of vegetative reproduction. Tubers start to create buds where other plants will produce. Sucker: Advantages: Since asexual reproduction does not to join specialized cells or bring gametes together, they can produce many individuals very quickly if the conditions are right. Ex: bacterium (different bacteria) can reproduce asexually every 20 min. in a 12 hour period. That means it could divide to produce 10 million copies of itself. This is a great advantage to bacteria in its environments if there are not many changes in that environment. If a bacteria’s environment, for example, an animal’s guts doesn’t have many changes, it could reproduce asexually without many variations, which perhaps it has a better chance for survival than producing small numbers of bacteria with unnecessary variations. Disadvantages: One of the main disadvantages when it comes to asexual reproducing is, what if the conditions do become opposing and not encouraging. This could lead to the wipeout of the whole population. Ex: if those 10 million newly produced bacteria gets applied with antibiotics, they could be killed if they had no resistance to them. Reproduction is when species produces new individuals or offspring. Reproduction can be offspring with identical characteristics as the parent (asexual) or a mix of both and can be very different from the parents (sexual).

Advantages- A great amount of variations can be formed by sexual reproduction. A great amount of variation can be a great advantage for species to survive and adapt to environmental change. Disadvantages- Sexual reproduction takes up too much energy which creates a disadvantage. For example, In order to reproduce a flowering plant has to produce all the parts of its flower, as well as pollen grains and ovules.Challenge is brought to this process when The flower parts must provide a way for the gametes to meet, while lots of pollen must be made to be blown by the wind. Also, The embryo must be in a seed and protected by the flower until the seed is scattered.
The number of offspring, made my sexually reproducing species, is limited. Suckers are tiny roots and shoots that are beside a parent plant (ex: tree) that could possible became another individual created asexually by the parent plant. GAMETE: Gamete: a specialized cell or sex cell. Either it is a sperm cell or egg cell. Sperm cells are the male sex cells or gametes needed for sexual reproduction. Sperm Cells: ex. sperm and egg cells Egg cells (ova) are female gametes or sex cells needed for sexual reproduction. Egg cells: Fertilization is when female gametes (egg cells) and male gametes (sperm cells) join together during mating. Fertilization: When the zygote divides into divisions and keeps repeating in a process called cleavage. Cleavage: When a male and female gamete of a plant join they create a seed to be planted in soil to reproduce and make another plant similar to the parent plants but with the mix of genes. THANK YOU FOR WATCHING! (:
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