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Colligative Properties

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by

Maria Tanner

on 29 January 2013

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Transcript of Colligative Properties

Depend on the collective effect of particles in solution - i.e., the NUMBER of particles is important, not their identity. Colligative Properties Vapor pressure reduction
Boiling point elevation
Freezing point depression
Osmotic pressure Vapor Pressure Reduction

Vapor Pressure - the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid (in a closed container) Non-Volatile Solute
(= no VP)
Decreases the VP

How Much? - Raoult's Law: Volatile Solute
(has its own VP)
VP is richer in the more volatile component Boiling Point Elevation When the VP is reduced, you need more energy (higher T) to get the solution to boil. K(b) is a constant - find it in tables
m = molality
i applies to electrolyte solutions, and reflects to what extent they are completely dissociated. For non-electrolytes (i.e., covalent compounds), i = 1) Freezing Point Depression Osmotic Pressure

Osmosis - small molecules can move through a semi-permeable membrane. Movement is always from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated (to make concentrations equal).
M = molarity (moles / L) R = 0.08206 L atm/mol K T in kelvin
Osmotic pressure can be used to determine MW.
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