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Submarines

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Tan Chun Kang

on 7 January 2014

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Transcript of Submarines

Submarines
Scope
1. Objective of a submarine
2. Technology
3. New Modern Submarine



Our Core Business

Deterrence (Peacetime Engagement)
Surveillance & Intelligence
Hunting of Other Submarines
Special Operations
Battle Group Operations
Mine Laying
Prestige

Hull
Single/Double
Single Hull - Older submarines with only one hull
Have to withstand pressure difference
Space constraints (given to ballast tanks)
Conflicting shapes ( Pressure vs Seakeeping)

Double Hull - Pressure Vessel and Light Hull
Internal - Maintain atmospheric pressure for crew
External - Forms the tear-drop shape which reduces drag underwater
Space in between forms the ballast tanks


Hull
Anechoic Tile
[an-e-koh-ik]

Rubber/ synthetic polymer tiles
with thousand of tiny void
designed to :
Absorb/ distort sound waves
Reduce range of detection by enemy using active or passive sonar

Stealth needed to achieve mission
First used by Germans in 1940 on U-11.
Not used again until the Soviet Union coated their submarines with rubber tiles.
RN started using in 1980 while the USN in mid-1980
Post WWII, Soviet and German sub are built with double hull whereas the Americans and other Western countries primarily have single hull with light hulls at the bow and stern to optimize shape and house main ballast tank.
Weapon System
Torpedos
Heavy weight(mainly used by submarines)
Light weight(mainly used as defence/offense by surface ships in ASW)
Straight Running
Autonomous Homer
Wire Guided

Informations Gathering
Radar
Sonar: Passive and Active
Periscope: Visual Images Positioning
Infrared: Thermal imaging
Able to obtain visuals of ships in the dark
Drones: Aladin UAV Volan (Real-time)
LaserRange finder
Electronic Warfare
Weapon System
Tomahawk Cruise Missiles (Land Bombardment)

Ballistic Missiles (>4000nM)
Self Defense

Decoys and Jammers
WASS: C303/S
RN: AMULET

USN: Librascope

Israeli: SCUTTER

German: TAU
(Torpedo Abwehr Uboote)

Thomson-CSF:
TOSCA (Towed)
CALAS (Self-propelled)
Propulsion
Conventional:
Diesel-Electric
Run on diesel engine on when surfaced
Battery when submerged Low endurance

Air-Independent Propulsion
Closed Cycle Steam energy output, Efficiency
Closed Cycle Diesel Noisy, increase detection rate
Stirling Cycle Slow, requires start up time, cannot change output quickly
Fuel Cells 30-50kW/unit, Efficiency, Low heat transmission

Propulsion
Nuclear
High output ~20MW Able to move faster
No refueling
Ability to submerge indefinitely
Very big due to nuclear reactor
Hard to maneuver
Noisy due to constant pumping of coolant to the reactor
Motor/ engine to power the propeller
Rudder
Propeller
Hydroplane
Essential Systems
Hydroplane on the Sail
Advantage:
Disadvantage:
Operating gear takes up space

Decreased ice breaking performance

At periscope depth less effective

Close to the CG


Improve performance of bow sonar array


Hydroplane on the Bow
Advantage: Diadvantage:
More likely to be damaged in dock
Further away from CG, more accurate djustments
Bow planes may generate noise and affect the performance of the spherical sonar array which is a essential system onboard, there are retractable bow planes
Air
Sources:
Water Electrolysis
Dehumidifier
Scrubber
Oxygen Tank


Purpose:
Diesel Engine
Human Consumption
De-Ballast
Water
Sources:
Reverse Osmosis
Distillation
Fuel Cell
Purpose:
Consumption
Coolant

Power Supply
Source:
Diesel-Electric
AIP
Nuclear
Purpose:
Hotel Usage
Propulsion
Systems
Why Pumpjets
Increase efficiency
Same Speed at a lower RPM
Cavitation less likely to occur
Lower Noise Signature
Duct is required to be welded to hull
Increases Drag at low speed
Impractical to sustain high speed unless using Nuclear source
Other Submarines with Pumpjets
French: Barracuda
US: Virginia
RN: Swiftsure, Astute
Catharginian: Type 061N

Visual Imaging Photonic Mast
Periscope Limitations:
Runs through the hull
Usage(Search vs Attack)
Big Size
Visual Imaging Photonic Mast
Requires only a small penetration through the hull for cabling
XFC UAS

eXperimental Fuel Cell Unmanned Aerial System
Communications at Speed ad Depth
Quantum Key Distribution
Secure Submarine Communications
On a Quantum Level
Higher level of security( qubit vs bit )
Higher Data Transfer rate ~170kbps
No towing of antenna cable(VLF, ELF)
Do not have to slow down, maintain depth >100m,
Maintain Orientation,

References
Best for Heavily Loaded Propellers
Best for High rpm Propellers

Sonar
Room
Combat
Systems
Info Sharing
http://www.naval-technology.com/contractors/missiles/whitehead/
http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MONITOR/ISSUE3-4/joseph.html
http://www.dutchsubmarines.com/rd/r&d_ccd.htm
http://www.naval-technology.com/features/featuredeep-secret-secure-submarine-communication-on-a-quantum-level/
http://news.cnet.com/8301-13772_3-20010868-52/inside-the-worlds-most-advanced-submarine/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swiftsure_class_submarine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia-class_submarine
http://en.ria.ru/military_news/20130319/180112651.html
http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/inside-super-submarine-ambush-ahead-1323450
http://statesmanship.co.uk/forum/index.php?topic=719.0
http://www.rnw.nl/english/article/india-launches-first-nuclear-submarine
http://gcaptain.com/propeller-technology-ship-efficient/
http://www.hyspecs.co.nz/DataSheets/Creep%20Drive_Pr%C3%A9sentation_Generic_GB.pdf
http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/type_212/
http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/india-looks-to-modify-scorpene-subs-with-mesma-aip-propulsion-01954/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_marine_propulsion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_cells
http://www.heiszwolf.com/subs/tech/tech01.html
http://warships1discussionboards.yuku.com/topic/18055#.Uq6US1MxCxc
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coand%C4%83_effect
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pump-jet
http://www.submarineresearch.com/bull70.html
https://circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/4591/ubc_1996-0415.pdf?...1
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ducted_propeller
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercavitating_propeller
http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/type_212/type_2128.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_212_submarine
http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/type_212/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propeller
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aladin_%28UAV%29
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235609338_Bottoming_of_a_submarine
http://csis.org/blog/nuclear-vs-diesel-submarines
http://www.fleetsubmarine.com/propulsion.html
http://www.fleetsubmarine.com/dynamics.html
https://www.navalengineers.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/hamilton_award_papers/122_1/paper9.pdf
http://www.gizmag.com/octopus-squid-propulsion-system/28135/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%A4sterg%C3%B6tland_class_submarine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archer-class_submarine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%B6dermanland-class_submarine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_212_submarine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_216_submarine
http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/submarine6.htm
http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-submarine.htm
http://www.howstuffworks.com/submarine-info1.htm
http://science.howstuffworks.com/photonic-mast.htm
http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/question419.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Submarine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wet_sub
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleeping_Beauty_(canoe)
https://www.google.com/search?q=torpedos
https://www.google.com/search?q=submarine+fires+drone
http://rt.com/usa/drones-launched-from-submarine-785/
https://www.google.com/search?q=role+of+submarine+in+military
http://inventors.about.com/od/militaryhistoryinventions/a/Military_Subs.htm
http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/submarine.htm
http://breakingdefense.com/2013/04/save-our-subs-prioritizing-the-attack-submarine/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air-independent_propulsion
Very Very Expensive
Octopus inspired Propulsion

About Myself

ME4A Tan Chun Kang, Ken
64th MIDS/ 1st MDEC 1
NTU Mechanical Engineering Y3
NTU Canoe Polo, Soccer, Tennis

Why am I here?
Full transcript