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Copy of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
Transcript of Copy of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
Authors: Sara S. Sparrow, PhD, Domenic V. Cicchetti, PhD, David A. Balla
Overview: A measure of adaptive behavior from birth to adulthood
Age Range: Birth-90
Languages: English & Spanish
What are the benefits of Vineland-II
Addresses today’s special needs populations, such as individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and ADHD
Updated with new norms, expanded age range, and improved items
Useful for diagnosis, qualification for special programs, progress reporting, program and treatment planning, and research
Offers both respected semi-structured interview format which focuses discussion and gathers in-depth information, and also offers convenient rating forms
All Vineland-II forms aid in diagnosing and classifying intellectual and developmental disabilities and other disorders, such as autism, Asperger Syndrome, and developmental delays.
What does it cover?
What the test covers?
How the individual listens and pays attention and what he/she understands
What the individual says, how he or she uses word and sentences to gather and provide information
What the individual understands about how letters make words, and what he or she reads and writes
The scales of the Vineland II were organized within a three domain structure: Communication, Daily Living, and Socialization. This structure corresponds to the three broad domains of adaptive functioning by the American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Conceptual, Practical, and Social. In addition, Vineland-II offers a Motor Skills Domain and an optional Maladaptive Behavior Index to provide more in-depth information about your clients.
Daily Living Skills
Birth–90 years old:
Survey Interview Form, Expanded Interview Form, and Parent/Caregiver Rating Form; 3:0–21:11: Teacher Rating Form
How the individual eats, dresses, and practices personal hygiene
What household tasks the individual performs
How the individual uses time,
money, the phone & computer,
and job skills
Survey Interview Form
Survey Interview Form provides a targeted assessment of adaptive behavior. You administer the survey to a parent or caregiver using a semi-structured interview format. This approach gathers more in-depth information with its open-ended questions and promotes rapport between the interviewer and respondent.
Parent/Caregiver Rating Form covers the same content as the Survey Interview, but uses a rating scale format. This alternative approach works when time or access is limited. The Parent/Caregiver Rating Form is also a valuable tool for progress monitoring. Use the Survey Interview Form on the initial assessment and track progress by using the Parent/Caregiver Rating Form.
Parent/Caregiver Rating Form
Expanded Interview Form provides an in-depth alternative to the Survey Interview form with more items. Particularly suitable for ages 0 to 5 or to help facilitate detailed program planning for low functioning individuals.
How the individual interacts with others
Play and Leisure Time:
How the individual plays and uses leisure time
How the individual demonstrates responsibility and sensitivity
Expanded Interview Form
Teacher Rating Form assesses adaptive behavior for students in school, preschool, or a structured day care setting. This form uses a questionnaire format completed by the teacher or day care provider. The Teacher Rating Form contains the same Domains as the Survey Forms but covers content that a teacher would observe in a classroom setting. Targeted and comprehensive, the form lets you evaluate a student's functioning in a single domain or any combination of domains. An adaptive Behavior Composite score is provided when all four domains are administered
Teacher Rating Form
How the individual uses arms and legs for movement and coordination
How the individual uses hands and fingers to manipulate objects
Paper and Pencil
20-60 minutes –Survey Interview and Parent/Caregiver Rating Forms;
25–90 minutes—Expanded Interview Form;
20 minutes—Teacher Rating Form
Maladaptive Behavior Index:
A composite of Internalizing, Externalizing and other types of undesirable behavior that may interfere with the individual's adaptive functioning
Maladaptive Behavior Critical Items:
More severe maladaptive behaviors that may provide clinically important information
Adaptive Behavior Composite:
A composite of the communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor
Domains and Adaptive Behavior Composite—Standard scores (M = 100, SD = 15), percentile ranks, adaptive levels. Subdomain—V-scale score (M = 15, SD = 3), Adaptive levels, age equivalents. On Survey Interview and Expanded Interview Form only—V-scale scores, maladaptive levels for the optional Maladaptive Behavior Index.
Options: ASSIST software or Manual Scoring
The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale or VABS is one of the various assessment tools that can be used to help diagnose and evaluate the special needs of students. The focus of this particular test is the measurement of the adaptive behaviors, including the ability to cope with environmental changes, to learn new everyday skills and to demonstrate independence.
nationally representative American sample of 3,695 individuals from birth to 90 years
The norm sample was stratified according to demographic variables such as sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geographic region
researchers also controlled for community size and special education program placement
eleven clinical groups:
attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder,
emotional or behavioral disturbance,
deafness/hard of hearing,
cognitively delayed-mild (child and adult samples), cognitively delayed-moderate (child and adult samples),
cognitively delayed severe/profound (adult sample)
The demographic stratification on many of the variables is close to that of the 2001 US
Current population survey. According to the manual, persons classified as being Native
American or American Indian were included in the standardization but these individuals were
included in the category “other” along with Alaska Natives, Asians, and Pacific Islanders. The
entire “other” sample is approximately 6% of the norming sample
A split-half reliability test determined the reliability of scores for two halves of the test using the standardization sample data.
The spearman-brown formula was used to determine correlations of the domains and subdomains.
communication domain correlations ranged from .84 to .93.
Daily Living Skills domain correlations ranged from .86 to .91.
Socialization domain ranged from .84 to .93.
Motor Skills domain ranged from .77 to .90.
Maladaptive Behavior Index ranged from .85 to .91
Adaptive Behavior Composite reliability was determined by the formula from Nunnally; correlations for this composite ranged from .93 to .97 across the age groups.
The manual notes that in order to determine test stability a sample of
414 respondents from the standardization sample completed two forms of the Vineland-II on separate occasions (between 13 and 34 days from the first administration).
Average correlations were found to range between .76 and .92 across domains (with the exception of the Maladaptive Behavior Subscales and Index),
Maladaptive Behavior Subscales and Index have test-retest correlations ranging from .74 to .98.
In order to determine if scores remain consistent and do not change drastically depending on interviewer, 148 respondents were interviewed on two different occasions by two different interviewers.
Average correlations ranged between .70 to .76 across domains/subdomains (with the exception of the Maladaptive Behavior Subscales and Index) and ages.
The Maladaptive Behavior Subscales and Index demonstrate correlations ranging from .59 to the mid .80s across age groups.
Data from 152 individuals were used to determine interrater reliability. Average correlations ranged between .71 to .81 across domains/subdomains (with the exception of the Maladaptive Behavior Subscales and Index) and ages.
The Maladaptive Behaviors Subscales and Index demonstrated correlations between .59
and .83 for the Survey Interview Form and between .39 and .87 for the Parent/caregiver rating form across age groups.
previous version of Vinland: .69-.96
Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (AMAS-II): .70
Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-II): .34-.74
Demonstrates that a measure is not related to tools that measure different constructs.
The relationship between the Vineland-II and the Weschsler Scales (WISC-III & wAIS-III) indicate a near zero correlation for the WISC-III and a .2 correlation with the WAIS-III
This is generally excepted since measures of adaptive behavior differ greatly from that of intelligence
The strengths of this instrument include a robust standardization sample, excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and solid evidence for content, concurrent, and construct validity. In addition, the expanded age range for the Vineland-II allows for assessment of age-related adaptive functioning changes in elderly individuals.
One of the weaknesses of the Vineland-II is relatively weak interrater reliability, especially on the TRF and the Maladaptive Behavior Index of the Survey Forms. However, this is a potential weakness of any rating scale, which requires respondents to quantify their observations of an individual, based on personal experience and varying expectations. Though the interrater reliability of the Vineland-II is lower than preferred, it is still comparable to reported interrater reliabilities of other adaptive behavior measures.
Another potential weakness of the Vineland-II is inconsistency in the range of scores available by age. The highest scaled scores available vary by age, making it difficult to compare adaptive behavior skills over time for individuals with above average skills. Realistically, this is not likely to be a major problem in that the Vineland-II is not typically administered to individuals who are exhibiting higher than average functioning.
What Do The Critics Say?
Community-University Partnership for the Study of Children, Youth, and Families (2011). Review
of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (Vineland-II). Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Mental Measurements Yearbook, 2010
Vineland-II Complete Starter Kit: $420.65
Vineland-II Training CD: $118.00
Vineland-II Survey Forms, Expanded Form and Teacher Rating Form Starter Kit with ASSIST:
*much more listed on website, you can order (reorder) any part of the system needed
Content is theoretically and empirically linked to target behaviors, defining skills needed for adaptive functioning and the developmental sequence of skill acquisition.