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DTRA Presentation

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Michaela Fasano

on 20 July 2010

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Transcript of DTRA Presentation

Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Weapons Development Process
DTRA Presentation
6723 Stockpile Numbers
1967: 31,255 warheads
2009: 5,113 warheads
*84% reduction
W58 Polaris SLBM
https://www.llnl.gov/str/JanFeb02/JanFeb50th.html
http://www.y12.doe.gov/news/report/toc.php?vn=1_2&xml=sp_4 B61 being dropped from a B-2. US Stockpile

-Active & Inactive Warheads
Active Warheads

-Strategic & Non-strategic weapons
-Operational (Tritium bottles intact.)

Inactive Warheads

-Non-operational status (Tritium bottles removed.) Ground based interceptor missile facilities in Alaska. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=54585 *Each warhead requires routine maintenance, periodic repair, replacement of limited life components, and surveillance in order to assure continued safety, security, and reliability and other support activities as necessary. Works Cited (Text) http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/intro/nuke-test.htm
http://www.lanl.gov/natlsecurity/nuclear/current/hydro.shtml
http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/intro/hydrodynamic.htm
http://www.defense.gov/npr/docs/10-05-03_fact_sheet_us_nuclear_transparency__final_w_date.pdf
http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/intro/hydronuclear.htm
http://nnsa.energy.gov/ourmission/managingthestockpile
http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2010/04/08/new-start-treaty-and-protocol#section1
http://www.acq.osd.mil/ncbdp/nm/nuclearweaponssurety.html
https://www.osti.gov/opennet/forms.jsp?formurl=document/rdd-1/drwcrtf4.html
http://www.cfo.doe.gov/budget/04budget/content/weapons/dsw.pdf
http://www.cfo.doe.gov/budget/02budget/weapons/dsw.pdf
http://www.sandia.gov/LabNews/LN01-24-03/labnews01-24-03.pdf
http://www.acq.osd.mil/ncbdp/nm/pages/USNuclearDeterrence.html
http://www.cfo.doe.gov/budget/02budget/weapons/dsw.pdf
https://www.llnl.gov/str/Kolb.html
http://www.gao.gov/archive/1996/rc96100t.pdf
Sandia National Laboratory “US Enduring Stockpile” Card
http://conrad.senate.gov/issues/statements/defense/0911_ICBM_White_Paper.pdf
http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/137264.pdf
http://www.y12.doe.gov/missions/defenseprograms/storage.php
http://www.y12.doe.gov/missions/defenseprograms/story.php?ID=47
http://www.acq.osd.mil/ncbdp/nm/pages/USNuclearDeterrence.html
http://www.nnsa.energy.gov/mediaroom/speeches/presented-institute-defense-analyses-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Cadvancing-america%E2%80%99s-nuclear-security%E2%80%9D
http://nnsa.energy.gov/ourmission/managingthestockpile/lifeextensionprograms
http://www.cfo.doe.gov/budget/02budget/weapons/dsw.pdf
http://nnsa.energy.gov/mediaroom/factsheets/warheaddismantle
http://www.defense.gov/npr/docs/10-05-03_fact_sheet_us_nuclear_transparency__final_w_date.pdf

Retired Warheads
-removed from delivery platform
-non-functional
-put in the queue for dismantlement
*Considered to be part of the nuclear stockpile.

Dismantled Warheads
-warheads reduced to their component parts
*Not part of the stockpile. Stockpile or not? "Warhead dismantlement cells, Pantex plant, Amarillo, Texas. The circular concrete structures, "gravel gerties," cover cells where warhead components containing conventional high explosives are assembled and disassembled. Pantex has 13 such disassembly cells and 60 bays that can be used for assembly/disassembly operations involving insensitive high explosives." http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/pages_us_en/disarmament/disarmament/disarmament.php New START Treaty -April 8, 2010
-US President Barack Obama & Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
-Duration: 10 years
-All nuclear weapons
*Deployed and non-deployed, strategic and non-strategic
-Measures
a. On-site inspections & exhibitions
b. Data exchanges & notifications (in relation to strategic offensive arms and facilities covered by Treaty
c. Exchange of telemetry
d. Provisions to facilitate the use of national technical means for treaty monitoring 2 control elements: Use Control, and Command and Control (C2) Command & Control -Use Control: positive measures that allow the authorized use, and prevent or delay
the unauthorized use, of nuclear weapons *Accomplished through a combination of weapon system design features,
operational procedures, security, and system safety rules
*Reference: components and codes -Command and Control (C2): exercises authority and direction by the President (Commander-
in-Chief) through established command lines to authorize the employment of nuclear
weapons
*Relation: organizational and
communications procedures and
capabilities Both elements establish the framework through which absolute control of nuclear weapons is maintained at all times.


DOD, DOE, & NSA (National Security Agency)- develop, implement and maintain standards, plans, procedures, and other measure to control use of nuclear resources

DTRA- monitoring use control effectiveness/practices/procedures http://www.acq.osd.mil/ncbdp/nm/nuclearweaponssurety.html

Existing Storage Sites/Facilities a.Facilities under or in association with the Armed Forces Special
Weapons Project (AFSWP) or AEC
i.Official name(s), nickname(s), and/or location are not revealed
b.AEC storage sites
i.all weapons in custody of AEC at a National Storage Site (NSS) and
an Operational Storage Site (OSS)
c.Location
i.Revealed when information does not explicitly reveal installation is
a nuclear weapons storage site
ii.DOD storage sites
1.Weapons under DOD custody only
2.W/ delivery organizations and operating forces in the U.S. or
overseas
*Particular aircraft squadron, naval vessels, or special weapons
organizations have capability of storing or handling nuclear
weapons.
iii.Approximate locations of some national and operational stockpile
sites provide that no indication is given as to the total number of
storage sites. NATO Bunkers, KAFB, NM A-2-562 Moose Creek Nike Site http://www.cmc.sandia.gov/nato-bunkers.htm
http://www.a-2-562.org/shutdown.html

Storage -provides for a design interface with the DOE weapons production plants Maintenance of Warheads a. Activities (replacement of limited life components) i. Production liaison interactions between the
weapons labs and the production plants
ii. Military liaison with DOD
iii. Integrated Safety Process (ISP) systematic
review and revalidation of weapon assembly
and disassembly operations "A nuclear warhead for the U.S. Air Force Peacekeeper intercontinental ballistic missile, contained in a large, pointed metal nosecone, is passed through a wall of fire as part of the rigorous engineering analysis and environmental testing performed to ensure that the U.S. nuclear weapon stockpile remains safe and reliable." http://x-journals.com/2009/aging-nuclear-warheads-refurbish-or-replace-them/ The Directed Stockpile Work: Stockpile Maintenance Mission- provide for the short-term and strategic maintenance needs of stockpile





Program Objective: Assure the sufficient capacity is available in the production complex to meet production requirements for refurbishment efforts and limited life components needed to maintain the stockpile.




Subprogram Goal: Extend the service lifetimes and reliability of the nuclear weapons in the stockpile.
*Short-term Needs








-Production of new neutron generators is necessary to expand the production for new gas transfer systems (both of high significance) -providing for the day-to-day maintenance activities of limited life components
exchange (LLCE)
-production and delivery of components—limited life components and others
-delivery of kits to military










*Critical for the Nuclear Weapons Complex to meet delivery schedules*
http://www.acq.osd.mil/ncbdp/nm/nmbook/chapters/ch4.htm DSW Non-nuclear testing being conducted on a warhead. -Began in the mid-1960s, when weapons testing was done through
underground explosions of nuclear devices.
(Underground testing ended in the early 1990s.
-DOE’s program began in 1995. U.S. Ensure, through various tests, that the
reliability of nuclear weapons is maintained.

*Understand the effects of aging to reveal design and manufacturing defects.
(Alteration of the physical characteristics of the materials.)

*Develop diagnostic tools and predictive models that
will make it possible to analyze and predict the effects of
time on weapon materials, components and systems.
a. Nuclear Weapons
b. Components
c. Systems a.Non-nuclear flight tests- the actual dropping or launching of a weapon
from which the nuclear components have been removed.

b.Non-nuclear systems laboratory tests- testing the non-nuclear systems
in the weapon to detect defects due to aging, manufacturing, or
design.

c.Laboratory tests of the nuclear components- destructive analysis to
detect defects or failures in the nuclear portion of the weapon. a.Oversight for enduring stockpile weapon systems
i.Pits ii.Canned subassemblies (CSAs)
iii.High explosives iv.Polymers
v.Detonators vi.Reservoirs
vii.Valves viii.Weapons awaiting dismantlement Design Stockpile Surveillance 1.Verify the safety and reliability of U.S. nuclear weapons.

2.Evaluates the conditions of…



3.Tests: Non-nuclear flight tests, non-nuclear systems laboratory tests, and laboratory tests of the nuclear
components.







4.Determine if there are any issues with weapons safety and performance. With special diagnostic
tools, the effects that impact weapon reliability, safety, and performance, will be able to be determined
pre-occurrence.

5.(Refurbishment if necessary.)

6.Compatibility of DOD & DOE interfaces.

7.Activities (in surveillance/evaluation): Purpose: Nuclear weapon testing: Encompasses all experiments in which special nuclear material is placed in contact with high explosives, which are then detonated.

- > 6,000 parts (single weapon)
*Nuclear package=about 300 parts (primary & secondary assemblies)
-Firing set, detonators, neutron generators, etc. are tested to demonstrate their behavior as non-nuclear components


A.Full-yield nuclear test is unnecessary if…
6 states testing the nuclear devices achieve a nuclear detonation on the first try.
B.Full-yield nuclear test is necessary if…
Nuclear devices fail to detonate.

*First nuclear weapon used in combat incorporated an untested gun-assembled design

*First implosion device tested on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, NM (w/ an identical “physics package” [fissile and fusion fuels plus high explosives] incorporated into the bomb dropped on Nagasaki 1st Test: Full-yield nuclear test? Nuclear Weapon Testing http://ndep.nv.gov/boff/photo01.htm Hydrodynamics: Branch of science concerned with how fluids move and how they interact with boundaries.
-Inside a nuclear weapon: metals like plutonium are pressurized, shocked, and heated to an extensive amount
making them convert into fluids and mix with each other


1.High explosives, and other materials, emit powerful electric currents
2.Electrical currents create a full-scale nuclear weapon primary containing HE that is surrounds a metal pit
3.²³⁹Pu is replaced with a stunt double, or a mockup
a.Stunt double- similar behavior, same weight, density, and other metallurgic properties as ²³⁹Pu
i.Cannot undergo fission
4.Detonation
5.Wave of detonation passes through the main HE charge
6.HE burn [or don’t detonate as designed ]
7.Pressure of detonation causes a shockwave to travel through the pit material, which responds by imploding
radially to a compact shape
8.Pit response: may eject material, and displays how the metal moves, flows, or melts
9.Tritium-deuterium boost gas is heated by pit implosion and the onset of the fissioning process
10.Gas undergoes nuclear fission, generating numerous high-energy neutrons
11.Neutrons enter the fissile pit material causing subsequent fissioning and boost-induced nuclear interactions
*Improper boosting may decrease weapon performance.

During detonation…
-X-ray radiographs are taken to capture the stages of the materials’ reactions [interaction and change]
-X-rays allow for the study of shapes, pressures, densities, surface tensions, and material distribution
[during a weapon’s explosion]


Computer calculations based on these test results are used to determine how a nuclear weapon may perform. Process Results Hydrodynamic Testing A room underneath the firing chamber houses high-speed optical cameras. Images from the hydrodynamic test are directed with mirrors in the firing chamber to ports at the tops of the black shrouds. https://www.llnl.gov/str/Sep07/Bosson.html 1.Fissile material is assembled to form a supercritical mass in which a chain
reaction begins and implodes.
2.A “full” nuclear yield is not delivered due to the supercritical mass not
being maintained for a long enough time.
3.Nuclear energy releases range from values less than milligrams to
kilograms to metric tons of TNT equivalent yield

Experiments are designed to…
Use nuclear devices modified in one of several ways, so that very little
nuclear energy release occurs.

Subcritical Experiments: scientific experiments that obtain technical information in support of DOE and NNSA Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programs.
a.No self-sustaining nuclear fission chain reaction occurs.
b.Involve chemical high explosives to generate high pressures that are
applied to nuclear weapon materials.
c.Configuration and quantities [of explosives and nuclear materials]: enough
so that no nuclear explosion may occur
d.Consistent with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
e.1st experiment conduced at LANL: Rebound on July 2, 1997; 2nd
experiment conducted at LLNL: Holog on September 18, 1997
Process Hydronuclear Testing "Preparations for underground
nuclear test at NTS." Typical Reservoir http://www.srs.gov/general/programs/dp/index.htm Delivery Systems
1947-1997
Sandia National LaboratoriesMilitary Liaison
US Enduring Stockpile
USN

Warhead Use/On Physics Lab Primary Use
W76 SLBM/Trident I, II, C4 & D5 LA UW to Surface
W80-0 TLAM-N/Tomahawk LA UW to Surface
W88 SLBM/Trident II D5 LA UW to Surface

LA= Los Alamos National LaboratoryUW=Underwater

Sandia Military Liaison
Enduring Stockpile
USAF
Warhead Use/On Physics Lab Primary Use
B61-3/4/10 TB/F15, F16 & Tornado LA TA to Surface
B61-7/11 SB/B52 & B2 LA SA to Surface
W62 ICBM/Minuteman III LL Surface to Surface
W78 ICBM/Minuteman III LA Surface to Surface
W80-1 ALCM/ACM/B52 LA SA to Surface
B83-0/1 SB/B52 & B2 LL SA to Surface
W84 GLCM (Gone) Warhead LL Surface to Surface
W87 ECBM/PeaceKeeper LL Surface to Surface

SB=Strategic BombTB=Tactical BombTA=Tactical AircraftSA=Strategic Aircraft
LA=Los Alamos National LaboratoryLL=Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

United States Strategic Triad: bombers, sea-based missiles, land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles

Strategic Nuclear Weapons
-long-range
-ICBMs, SLBMs, and heavy bombers that carry cruise missiles or gravity bombs
-“Directed against one or more of a selected series of enemy targets with the purpose of progressive destruction and disintegration of the enemy’s war making capacity and will to make war.” (Department of Defense
Dictionary of Military Terms)

Tactical/Non-strategic Nuclear Weapons
-“The use of nuclear weapons by land, sea, or air forces against opposing forces, supporting installations or facilities, in support of operations that contribute to the accomplishment of a military mission of limited scope, or in
support of the military commander’s scheme of maneuver, usually limited to the area of military operations.” (Department of Defense Dictionary of Military Terms) http://www.nps.gov/mimi/historyculture/titan-icbm.htm Titan I ICBM test launching from Cape Cavaveral http://dssfeed.blogspot.com/ "A silo once housing an ICBM with nuclear warheads is destroyed near LuVerne, ND, in 2000 in compliance with the START treaty. " http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/07/AR2009110702001.html

-Enriched uranium material warehousing and management: Oversee the secure management and
storage of special nuclear materials as weapons are retired from the national stockpile or returned
for dismantlement under strategic arms reduction treaties.
*Materials originating from DOE sites and other research facilities (domestic and international)

-Nuclear Materials Management and Storage Program
*Receives, stores, protects, dispositions, and manages strategic and special nuclear materials.
*Provides programmatic planning, analysis and forecasting for national security material
requirements supporting the Stockpile Stewardship and other DOE programs.

-Nuclear Packaging System Program
*Provides certified and economical packaging for transporting and storing weapon
components and assemblies, radioactive materials, and other materials.
Y-12 Nuclear Material Storage http://www.oakridge.doe.gov/em/ssab/Stewardship-Kit/Files/HistoricalPhotos/Photos.htm - Becomes feedstock for new material,

- HEU in excess of national defense needs is down blended to provide fuel for nuclear reactors.

-Vendors: dispose of components and handle gear that are contaminated

- Components retained for reuse: placed in secure storage after cleaning and inspection

-Legacy components—parts produced for weapons that have been retired or are of
surplus—recycled or packaged for burial in secure licensed landfills at Y-12 or the Nevada Test Site

- Materials shipped in special containers

1st quarter of Fiscal Year 2006:
DSW’s Dismantlement and Disposition Program
shipped 3,100 cubic feet of classified,
contaminated, non-RCRA (Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act) components and materials
to the Nevada Test Site.
24% > amount planned Recycling of Nuclear Material Mixed-oxide fuel pellets consist of recycled plutonium in combination with other radioactive substances.
http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/v41_3_08/article11.shtml The purpose of nuclear weapon refurbishment is to provide corrective maintenance and weapon component replacement—to extend the viability of warheads beyond their designed end-of-life date. It is the national laboratories that start developing and certifying an engineering design for warhead modification through a combination of non-nuclear experiments, flight tests, physics and engineering analyses, and computer simulations. This design must address the requirements needed to extend the life of a system, meet all qualifications, certifications and requirements of the military, and support the directive schedule, including modifications and alterations. Once this design is complete, the weapons are returned from the field, and the degrading components are refurbished by means of Life Extension Programs. For assurance, the refurbished designs are created as closely as possible to the nuclear-tested designs.

The United States nuclear weapons stockpile was produced over thirty years ago. This lengthy amount of time has caused many of the warheads to begin to deteriorate. As a result, Life Extension Programs were created in hopes of refurbishing the weapons, and maintaining an active stockpile.

Life Extension Programs are designed for each weapon type and consist of specific solutions to extend the lifetime of each particular warhead. These programs include the identification and correction of potential technical issues with each weapon, and the refurbishment or replacement of components. Theses extension efforts are intended to extend the lifetime of a warhead or a component for an additional twenty to thirty years.
Refurbishment http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/rewrite/budget/fy2003/bud14.html B-61 bomb undergoing refurbishment.
Contains approximately 6,000 component parts. The purpose of the dismantlement and disposition, or disposal, of nuclear weapons is to assist in the effort to transform the nuclear weapons complex and stockpile. The weapons are taken apart to ensure that they are of no further use, to reduce the overall size of the nuclear weapons stockpile, and to ensure that a country is meeting its international nonproliferation commitments. The process of warhead dismantlement and disposition includes all activities needed to reduce the surplus quantity of retired weapons or weapon components—interim storage, surveillance (or weapon analysis), and complete disposition of the retired weapons and components.

The dismantlement of a warhead is an extensive process…
1.Design laboratories work with the production faciities to identify and mitigate any hazards that may arise before a particular weapon type is dismantled.
2.The knowledge attained in developing the warhead is also used in the dismantling of the warhead.
3.The warhead is then retired and designated for dismantlement.
4.The weapon is brought to the Pantex Plant where all of its high explosives are removed from the nuclear material. The non-nuclear components are either
processed on site or sent to other facilities within the complex.
5.Y-12 National Security Complex dismantles the uranium components, while the Savannah River Site and Kansas City Plant complete the final processing of
the non-nuclear components.
*The Office of Secure Transportation moves the nuclear material and parts between sites ensuring that the work is completed securely and on-schedule.*

Today, there are several thousand retired nuclear weapons awaiting dismantlement.

Moscow Treaty: May 24, 2002
-signed by the United States and Russia
-Each nation is to reduce their deployed strategic nuclear
warheads to a level that does not exceed 1,700-2,200 by December 31, 2012.
-Parties are allowed to determine the composition and structure of their
strategic forces individually, as long as they are consistent within the stated limit.
-Bilateral Implementation Commission meets at least twice a year to discuss
issues related to the Treaty
Warhead Dismantlement & Disposition http://nnsa.energy.gov/mediaroom/factsheets/warheaddismantle http://www.sandia.gov/ASC/images/vnv_progplan98/Image4.gif
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