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BTEC Sport Extended Certificate

Unit 1:- P6, M3, D2 Psychological Factors that affect sports training and sports performance

Peter Mowforth

on 19 April 2016

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Transcript of BTEC Sport Extended Certificate

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Psychological Factors That Affect
Sports Training and Performance Unit 1:- P6, M3, D2 Motivation The driving force that compels
people to do something! Personality Personality is the sum of an
individuals characteristics which
make him unique
(Edwin P. Hollander) Concentration A performer requires concentration to focus on the most relevant cues and to ignore cues that are irrelevant Arousal A term used to describe a persons state of mind and covers a continuum stretching from deep sleep through to extreme excitement Anxiety Anxiety is the term used to describe
feelings of worry, concern and
apprehension Summary By the end of this assignment you will have looked at the 5 psychological factors.

Created a poster or PowerPoint identifying and describing each factor.
Created an additional sheet that explains how they affect performance (giving 2 positives and 2 negatives for each factor).
Created a questionnaire with 2 questions on each factor.
Evaluated your results explaining what the results show. Unit 1: Assignment 4 Motivation is what gives a performer the energy to accomplish something, and it can come from both internal and external sources.
Internal or intrinsic motivation comes from within the sports performer
External or extrinsic motivation comes in the form of more obvious rewards. Types of Motivation Extrinsic Motivation

Tangible reward as a result of taking part
Public acclaim Intrinsic Motivation

Participating because you enjoy it and value the sport
Personal pride
The will to win
Wanting to be the best
A need to be a winner Motivation task On your poster/PowerPoint identify motivation and describe how it may affect sports training and performance.

On a separate sheet explain 2 positives and 2 negatives of motivation
E.g. boredom, fatigue, injuries, training, passion, concentration/focus, fitness, effort.

On a separate sheet produce 2 questions to ask sportspersons about motivation.
E.g. what motivates you? Intrinsic/extrinsic, scenarios about their training/performance habits
Personality plays a major part in sports performance and can have a significant impact on success or failure.

We all have different personalities and could spend hours looking at personality traits…..but we haven’t got the time!

In a nutshell though some typical personality types are listed below:

Loud and aggressive
Quiet and considered
Calm under pressure
Determined and focused
Easily distracted
Defeatist…..quickly gets downhearted Everyone is unique and different, but people generally fall into one of two broad categories

Happy in their own company
Self sufficient

Happiest in group situations Examples of players
Jonny Wilkinson, Paula Radcliffe, Chris Ashton Typical factors on performance Extrovert
Require a lot of feedback
Thrive in competitive environments
Enjoy crowd support
Favour team sports
High pain thresholds Introvert
Low pain threshold
Individual sports
Do not need positive feedback
Precision type skills are preferred A performer requires concentration to focus on the most relevant cues and to ignore cues that are irrelevant.
Many sports psychologists believe mistakes made by professionals are more likely to be due to a lack of focus rather than a problem with technique.
For example Andy Murray doing a double fault
Can you think of any others??? Coaches will often help prepare a player for a competitive fixture or tournament by encouraging them to use a ‘selective attention’.

Practice might include noisy, busy environments with other cues thrown in to confuse the performer.

This helps them to focus their attention on the things that really matter (e.g. flight of the ball) and discard the things that don’t matter. Any performer participating in sport is constantly bombarded with different information.
A performers ability to cope with this depends on experience either in performance or through training under circumstances.
When a performer processes information they have to:
Make sense of it
Decide the best action to take Information has to be filtered, irrelevant info is discarded leaving important to be dealt with.
If this process is not carried out efficiently it can hinder decision making. An overload of information will hinder performance.
Sports performer will go through different phases of execution of a skill. Learning:
Concentration on all aspects of skill given equal billing With Practice:
Each part of skill becomes second nature, more concentration can be placed on performance of skill Experienced:
Perform skills automatically. Able to attend to other information such as changes in oppositions performance A players arousal level describes their level of enthusiasm or interest.
Commentators will often talk about players being ‘in the zone’ or ‘away with the fairies’. Taking part in competition can give you a mixture of feelings that either excite you or cause you to become anxious.
Placing stress on body and changes arousal levels. This in turns affects way you process incoming information and quality of performance. Psychological effects of arousal:
Increased anxiety over quality of output
Increased anxiety about perceptions others may have of the performance Physiological effects of arousal:
Increased heart rate
Increased body temperature
Increased sweating Levels of Arousal Performance Good Poor Poor Performance Under Optimal Over Maximum Performance Inverted U Theory When a player is under-aroused their level of performance will often be too low, and they may show a lack of interest and enthusiasm

If they are over – aroused, their performance level may also deteriorate because they are trying too hard and, therefore, making mistakes.

Optimal arousal facilitates the best performance levels. Concentration:-
Describe concentration
How does concentration affect sports training – good and bad
How does concentration affect sports performance – good and bad
Use a sporting example – e.g. When Tom Daley concentrates in training ……. When Tom Daley is not concentrating in training …….
What are the most relevant cues that your sports person would need to focus on? What would they need to block out and why?
Think of 2 questions you would ask a professional athlete about how they remain focused Make sure you have written about: Motivation:-
Describe motivation – 2 types
How does motivation affect sports training – good and bad
How does motivation affect sports performance – good and bad
Use a sporting example – e.g. When Tom Daley is motivated in training ……. When Tom Daley is not motivated in training …….
How do you think your sports person is motivated (intrinsic or extrinsic) why do you think this is
Think of 2 questions you would ask a professional athlete about what motivates them Arousal:-
Describe arousal – what are the 3 types?
How does arousal affect sports training – under, over, optimal
How does arousal affect sports performance – under, over, optimal
Use a sporting example – e.g. When a footballer is under/over or at optimal arousal in training then …….
Think of 2 questions you would ask a professional athlete about how they manage their arousal levels Anxiety:-
Describe anxiety – how can you reduce anxiety – use your sheets
How does anxiety affect sports training – good and bad
How does anxiety affect sports performance – good and bad
Use a sporting example – e.g. When a singer (your athlete) is about to go on stage for the first time they are anxious about performing. After years of experience they are able to channel that anxiety and use it to fuel their performance
Think of 2 questions you would ask a professional athlete about how they manage their anxiety Personality:-
Describe personality – 2 types
How can a persons personality affect them in their sport
Use a sporting example – e.g. your athlete is more likely to be an extrovert because ….. but they may show some introvert qualities
Think of 2 questions you would ask a professional athlete about how their personality suits their sport State anxiety
Where a persons level of apprehension fluctuates according to the situation There are 2 types Trait anxiety
Where a person is anxious at all times and in everything they do Which is more likely to exist in sporting situations State anxiety Anxiety exists because the performer feels unable to cope with a situation
E.g. Their opponent is better than they are, size of the crowd, importance of the event Ways to reduce Anxiety Imagery: the player is asked to close their eyes and imagine being in a peaceful environment or performing well in the forthcoming event Thought stopping: stop the player verbalizing any negative thoughts Positive talking: repeating phrases over and over again such as ‘I am the best’, ‘I can do this’ Muscular relaxation: massaging, to relieve the tension in tight muscles Can be good to help focus the performer and or motivate them. Too much can lead to over arousal and poorer performance.
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