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Constuction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs
Transcript of Constuction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs
Construction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs By: Anthony Jakubowski Learning Objectives:
•Explain the role of adaptation in writing clear sentences.
•Write short, clear sentences by limiting sentence content and economizing on words.
•Design sentences that give the right emphasis to content.
•Employ unity and good logic in writing effective sentences.
•Compose paragraphs that are short and unified, use topic sentences effectively, and communicate coherently The Importance of Adaptation •Choosing the right words is basic to clear communication
•The task of arranging those words into clear sentences and the sentences into paragraphs is equally as important
•You must adapt your sentences and paragraphs to your intended readers Study readers: find out what they know, think, and what their contexts are
Using simple sentences to reach people with lower communication abilities, using complex sentence structure with verbal, knowledgeable people
Aim below the level of your reader
Writing communicates best when it does not tax the reader’s comprehension
Manage the emphasis in your sentences
Make each sentence express a main idea
Follow the accepted rules of grammar and logic Care In Sentence Design •Constructing a message comes down to figuring out how to bring your contents together into a series of sentences
•When given specific bits of information, you must decide how much and what kind of information you want to put into each sentence, and in what form and order.
•The better you construct your sentences and their design, the more you control your meaning and your reader’s response to it.
•In short, cultivating an awareness of the different sentence types and elements will help you make a better writer Using Short Sentences • Your readers are busy. Writing efficient sentences can same them time and effort
• “95 percent of executives and managers make a to-do list for each day, but 99 percent of them to not complete the tasks on those lists”
• Short sentences can not only save time but can prevent miscommunication
• The more words and the more relationships there are in a sentence, the greater is the possibility for misunderstanding
• Writing intended to communicate with the middle level adult reader should average 16 to 18 words per sentence, with adjustments made for more/less advanced readers
• However, short sentences should not be used all the time. Longer sentences are sometimes required to convey information appropriately. Limiting Sentence Content
• Limiting content is one way to make sentences shorter
o Mentally selecting thought units and making separate sentences of them Economizing on Words
•Another way to shorten sentences is through word economy
•Seek shorter ways of saying things; shorter working save the reader time are cleared and more interesting •Cluttering phrases are “uneconomical” wording examples. These are phrases that can be replaced by shorter working without loss of meaning. Examples include: in the event that->if, in spite of the fact->although
•Cluttering PhraseShorter Substitution
Along the lines ofLike
At the present timeNow
For the purpose ofFor
For the reason thatBecause
In the near futureSoon
In the meantimeMeanwhile •Eliminate surplus words. Surplus words are words that add nothing to sentence meaning.
•Contains Surplus WordsEliminates Surplus Words
He ordered desks that are of the executive typeHe ordered executive-type desks
The machines that were damaged by the fire were repairedThe machines damaged by the fire were repaired •Avoid roundabout ways of saying things. Direct ways are usually shorter and communicate better.
The president is of the opinion that the tax was paidThe president believes the tax was paid
It is essential that the income be used to retire the debtThe income must be used to retire the debt •Repeat words only for effect and emphasis while avoiding repetitions of ideas (redundancies).
•Needless RepetitionRepetition Eliminated
We should plan in advance for the futureWe should plan
At the present time, we are conducting two clinicsWe are conducting two clinics