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Transcript of Greek Philosophy
Nature of Man: Man is a rational animal that in possession of its physical needs and appetites. Rationality comes with the soul. The passive element of the soul is the individual personality, with memories and thoughts relating to the experiences of life. Man ceases to exist as an individual personality at death and has no eternal destiny. Man's highest faculty is his spiritual nature. He acts according to his subordinates, physical appetite, to reason.
Teleology: Purpose, order and intelligence exist in the universe, stemming from the first being, the unmoved mover, God. Source of Truth: Reason in every man can be trained, through the principles of logic. Which allows man to reason toward true conclusions.Nature of Truth: Truth is objective. Truths exist in nature and are discovered by the reason of man. Plato's philosophical theories continue to influence countless thousands. The Philosophy of Plato Metaphysics: Ultimate reality is spiritual in nature. Prior idea or form for every material object.
(i.e. The idea of a house must exist before the material shape can take place)
The nature and Destiny of Man: Man has a soul that is chained to the material body. The soul is liberated at death. In the tenth book of The Republic, Plato states that the purpose of the soul is justice. The soul will be rewarded by God following death. Suffering in life is the result of the evil one did in a prior existence. After death, the soul chooses its future body and destiny.
"The gods are blameless" Epistemology Prior Knowledge: Knowledge is a matter of recalling ideas that are innate in the soul. The Academy Located on a recreation grove dedicated to the god Academus.
Free Tuition: The students paid no set fee. It was expected that wealthier students would give gifts.
Coeducational: Both men and women studied at the academy.
Entrance Requirement: Advance students
Curriculum: (1) Higher Mathematics (2) Astronomy (3) Music (4) Literature (5) Law (6) History (7) Philosophy
Teaching Method: He lectured and made use of Socratic discussion by dialogue as a method of scientific investigation and instruction. The sophists were itinerant professional teachers and intellectuals who frequented Athens and other Greek cities in the second half of the fifth century B.C.E. Creating Socratic irony and the Socratic method (elenchus). Like the Sophists, he entirely rejected the physical speculations that his predecessors had indulged, and used the thoughts and opinions of people as his starting-point. Philosophy: The study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence especially when considered as an academic discipline. 0 Unlike the ancient mythological approach used to explain the world with gods and goddesses, Ancient Greek Philosophy approached the explanations based on reason and evidence. Pre-Socratic philosophers progressed to distinguish a particular underlying principle; although the philosophers had the same approach and many theories were initiated, none of them accomplished a consensus. Socrates Plato Aristotle Socrates (470-399) was the son of a sculptor and midwife
Served in the Athenian army during Athens' fall with Sparta
He married, but fell in love with a particular soldier named Alcibiades.
Short and Stout
"His famous student, Plato, called him " the wisest, and justest, and best of all men whom I have ever known" (Phaedo)." (Dr. C. George Boeree.The Ancient Greeks, Part Two: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle). Athens Sophists took the thoughts and opinions of individuals for the standard. Sophists Athens — home of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle — is in the central Greek region and was late in joining the philosophical game. Socrates questioned people about their beliefs attempting to find the definitions of virtues, such as courage and justice, by cross-examining people who professed to obtain knowledge of them. Greek Philosopher who was credited with laying the fundamentals of modern Western philosophy. Known for: The method of questioning and cross examination. Best recognized for inventing the teaching practice of pedagogy. Wherein a teacher questions a student in a manner that draws out the correct response. Socrates was an enormously magnetic figure, who attracted many followers, but he also made many enemies. Socrates was executed for corrupting the youth of Athens and for disbelieving in the gods of the city. This philosophical martyrdom, however, simply made Socrates an even more iconic figure than would have been otherwise. * Plato (427-347) was born into a distinguished Athenian family
* Originally wished to be a playwright
But turned out to philosophy after he met Socrates
* Gave insight into the characters of the participants- making full use of narrative, myth, allegory and metaphor. Possessing a knowledge of geometry He completed two works of sculpture, "Hermes," the god, and "The Three Graces" Socrates' last words were "Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius (the god of medicine). Pay it and do not neglect it." A Priori Truths: Ideas are all eternal. Senses mislead and deceive man; therefor, man does not know truth through the senses. Turning inward making his life more spiritual and God-like, he approaches the spiritual source of knowledge. Test of Truth: When the mind is logically consistent with the eternal ideas, then something is known to be true. Rationalism: Each man is able to arrive at innate (natural) truths through the use of his reason.
Absolute Truth: All truths are eternal and absolute. What is true today will always be true. It can only be obtained by the soul’s activity within itself, apart from the troubles and disturbances of sense; that is to say, by the exercise of reason. The three parts of the soul are cognitive, spirited, and appetitive The three virtues are wisdom, courage, and temperance or continence. Aristotle (384-323) was the son of a physician
Student of Socrates
Plato regarded Aristotle as brilliant and referred to him as the "nous" or "the mind"
Established a school of higher education in philosophy Ethics Happiness: The highest good any man may aspire is happiness. A truly happy life can only be assessed upon its completion.
Reason: The source of virtue.Physical appetites must be controlled by reason. The soul of man must guide his every action.
Virtue: Man uses reason to judge between extremes of any given act. The middle course constitutes virtue.
(i.e. the mean between the two extremes of the vice rashness (excess of courage) and the vice of cowardice (lack of courage) is the virtue of temperate courage. Works Cited Works Cited
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"SOCRATES." SOCRATES. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/aee501/socrates.html>. The Persian Wars Greece and other civilizations were developing around the Mediterranean. One of the largest and most powerful was the Persian Empire.
Athens sent supplies to the Greeks.
The Persian army had no doubt that the Greeks would be easy to conquer. The Greeks were outnumbered.
The Persians came three times, and fought three huge battles - Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis. Each time the Persians were convinced they could easily conquer the Greeks. Each time, the Greeks drove them away.
The Greeks defeated the Persians. But there was always the threat that the Persians might come back. In preparation, the Greeks created the Delian League - a treasury that would allow them to quickly prepare for war, should the need arise.