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Copy of Feedback Prezi
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- John Hattie (2009) John Hattie Visible Learning Hattie synthesized over 800 meta-analyses of variables that impact student achievement In educational research, effect size is the magnitude of the difference that has been found in student achievement when a certain variable is present The typical effect size of growing another year older is 0.1 The typical effect of going to school with an average teacher is 0.3, with variability dependent upon the quality of the teacher Hattie's research is focused on finding teaching behaviors that exceed the effect size of average developmental growth and having an average teacher So a kid growing a year older, going to school with an average teacher adds up to a total effect size of .4 You know how we say that you can find research to support just about anything in education? 90% of educational studies report positive effects on student achievement In a world where almost everything works, what we need to know is:
Which strategies work the best?
What is worth our time and effort? Try the variable sort Here are the results: Feedback - .73 Socioeconomic Status - .57 Questioning - .46 Formative assessment - .90 Teaching test taking skills - .22 Retention - -.16 Effective feedback should help students know the answer to three basic questions:
Where am I going? Feed Up
How am I going? Feed Back
Where to next? Feed Forward Where am I going?
Feed Up How am I going?
Feed Back Where to next?
Feed Forward Hattie calls this .4 effect size, the hinge point Information becomes feedback if students have a clear learning goal and the information is related to that goal Related to a goal descriptive and specific actionable If we broadly define feedback as information given to a student in response to performance . . . Then yes, we do Evaluation Advice These are by far the most common forms of feedback that students get from their teacher . . . Students typically get information on their performance in the form of . . . Praise Unfortunately, that kind of feedback has the least powerful impact on student achievement Grades Your writing needs more examples Good job! So what is effective feedback and what makes it good? Up, back, forward Note: effective feedback doesn't necessarily need to be given explicitly . . . doesn't necessarily need to come from the teacher From Grant Wiggins:
"The point of this writing task is for you to make readers laugh. So, when rereading your draft or getting feedback from peers, ask, How funny is this? Where might it be funnier?" From Susan Brookhart:
A teacher wants students to use inverse operations to find the value of an unknown variable The teacher assigns this problem to students: m + 8 = 15, solve showing all steps A student calculates mentally and writes m = 7 The teacher marks the problem wrong. The student's reaction: That's not wrong! This feedback was ineffective, not because the learning goal was inappropriate, but because the student had a different goal Effective feedback occurs when the student knows and cares about the learning goal and the teacher gives information that helps the student achieve that goal Feedback impacts student achievement most when it gives specific information about how the student performed relative to the goal From Goodwin and Miller:
A teacher returns a student's paper with the word 'awkward' written in the margin The two most likely student responses to this kind of non-specific feedback . . . The student doesn't understand what the feedback means and ignores it The student misinterprets the word 'awkward' and makes changes that make the writing worse It describes what the student did Feedback that relates to a learning goal and describes student performance related to that goal is effective because it helps a student understand the gap between their performance and the learning target Feedback only impacts student achievement if it helps students understand how to close the gap between their performance and the learning target and more importantly . . . Students have an opportunity to immediately take and use the feedback You really chose details that helped to illustrate Amelia Earhart's bravery. However, the way you organized your writing makes it hard for me to follow your thinking. Is there a way you could sequence your details so your writing has a clear beginning, middle, and end? How much of an impact this feedback has on student achievement is determined in large part by when this feedback is given Unfortunately, most feedback that students receive from teachers is summative But feedback that is given so students know better for next time does not increase student achievement If a student is given an opportunity to take and use this feedback to improve his performance on this skill and this task, then this feedback is powerful Feedback is effective when students can immediately take and use the feedback to improve their performance on the task or skill that initiated the feedback and shouldn't be the same for everyone Goal related Descriptive and Specific Actionable Let's look at some examples! Make sure students receive some feedback that is divorced from evaluation In one study, Dylan Wiliam found that student performance was substantially higher when they were given specific, written feedback rather than a non-specific, non-descriptive grade Most interestingly, the same study found that when a grade was added to those same written comments, the grade completely negated the benefits of the comments Use a 'mental colon' after value judgements Good work: You chose evidence that really demonstrated that Emperor Chin was an effective ruler Wiggins suggests that after a while, the value judgement part of that feedback will come to seem unnecessary Evaluation, praise, and advice aren't necessarily bad as well as the person from whom students are most likely to receive feedback during a typical school day other students and most of that feedback was incorrect Encourage a classroom culture that welcomes mistakes as opportunities for growth from John Hattie:
"Feedback thrives in conditions of error and not-knowing" But only if those errors don't represent assaults on a student's self-concept "At times, creating opportunity requires turning negatives into positives, turning failure into feedback" "Feedback without a learning target is just someone telling you what to do" And of the 10% of studies that showed negative effects, half of those were expected, like the effects of disruptive students He used effect size as a common denominator that allowed him to compare the strength of one effect versus another You really chose details that helped to illustrate Amelia Earhart's bravery. However, the way you organized your writing makes it hard for me to follow your thinking. Is there a way you could sequence your details so your writing has a clear beginning, middle, and end? The student's argument is focused on kindness. The prompt is calling for the student to evaluate effectiveness Non-evaluative feedback can increase student achievement and can be a strategy that teachers use to achieve the growth targets on an SLO It's information that the student isn't looking for and will therefore likely be ignored