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NSCI300_BCI_2016

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Melanie Segado

on 8 April 2016

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Transcript of NSCI300_BCI_2016

Melanie Segado
Brain-Computer-Interface Technology
Defining BCI
Obvious answer:
Interface between brains and computers
More comprehensive answer:
Unidirectional or multi-directional information transfer within a network composed of brains and computers.
Also called Brain Machine interface (BMI), or Mind Machine Interface (MMI)
Can encompass Neural Prosthetics as well
Brain
Brain
Computer
Applications of BCI
Types of Brain Computer Interface:
Sensory/Extrasensory
Communication
Cognitive
Motor
Commercial
How does it work?
Recording
Stimulating
Non-Invasive:
ElectroEncephalography (EEG)
MagnetoEncephalography(MEG)
Realtime fMRI
Function Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Electromyography (EMG)**
Invasive:
Intracranial Microelectrodes
Electrocorticography (ECog), Intracranial EEG (iEEG)
'Non'-Invasive:
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation(TMS)
Transcranial Electrical Stimulation(TES)
Invasive:
Stimulating microelectrodes
Stimulating microelectrode arrays
Deep Brain Stimulation
BCI Devices
Hearing
Vision
Touch
Extra
Cochlear Implants and the Deaf Community
Should congenitally deaf children be made to undergo surgery?
Prosthetics are more effective the sooner they are implanted
However...
Prosthetics require life-long upkeep, risk of infection etc.
The Deaf do not see themselves as "incomplete"
Prosthetic Hands in Action
Second Sight: Argus II
Bionic Vision Australia
Visual Cortical Implant
Learning Objectives
For you to understand...
The methods used to implement Brain Computer Interface Technologies
The current status of the field
For you to discuss...
NeuroEthical issues
Sensory
Cochlear Implants
Auditory Brainstem Implants
The Steve Mann Incident
Niel Harbisson : Founder of the Cyborg Foundation
Nicolelis 2013
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Deep Brain Stimulation
Motor
Treatment of numerous motor conditions
Parkinson's Disease
Tremors
Distonia
Tourettes
Epilepsy
Spinal Cord Stimulation
Deep Brain Stimulation
Cognitive
Treatment of numerous cognitive conditions
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Anorexia
Major Depression
Memory
Implanted onto the hippocampus
Converts incoming signals into stimulating pulses
Shown to improve memory in rats
Deadwyler & Berger 2011
Sound and Image Reconstruction
Communication
Cursor/Keyboard Control
"Thought" Detection
Wheelchair & Exoskeleton control
Prosthetic Limb Control
Robotic Assistant Control
Visual Signal Transmission
Sensory Signal Transmission
Instruction Transmission
Commercial
Christopher James, Warwick Institute, 2009
Tangermann et. al. 2008
Shenoy et. al 2012
Kevin and Irena Warwick
Nicolelis et. al. 2013
McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, 2012
Toyota, 2009
Contreras-Vidal, 2012
Cyberdyne
Movement control
Jose Delgado
Rats
Beatles
Moths
Crickets
...Cats, Monkeys, Sharks
...Discussion
Kuratas MECH
'At Home treatments'
ADHD
Mistakes?
Insomnia
Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal
Dobelle, 2002
Dr. Micera,
The Case of Patient Milo
Pasley, 2012
Gallant 2008,2012
"Mind Reading" is NOT the biggest concern
Equal access
Openness of Information
Limits of discovery
Side effects
Hallucinations
Risky Behaviour
Depression
melanie.segado@gmail.com
@sciencelaer
Keep the discussion going
Email: melanie.segado@gmail.com
Twitter: @sciencelaer
Reddit: sciencelaer

The case of Scott Routley
Atentiv’s BCI-based treatment for Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Concentration
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-13273348
http://spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/bionics/darpa-project-starts-building-human-memory-prosthetics
TDCS
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Sources
Decoding Speech from brain activation:
https://soundcloud.com/public-library-of-science/plos-biology-podcast-episode-2
http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001251
Decoding Movies from brain activation:
http://gallantlab.org/publications/nishimoto-et-al-2011.html
http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2011/09/22/brain-movies/
fMRI for PVS (Scott Routley):
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/14/scott-routley-vegetative-patient-yes-no_n_2125481.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-20268044
Spinal Cord Stimulation:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-13444036s
Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBh2LxTW0s0s
Patient Milo:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13273348
Full transcript