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Alterations of Riparian Ecosystems Caused by River Regulation.
Transcript of Alterations of Riparian Ecosystems Caused by River Regulation.
Ecosystems Caused by
River Regulation [contextualize]
'riparian' refers to
the transition between
the aquatic environment
of the river and the
'river regulation' refers
to hydrological alterations
to ensure water for industrial,
agricultural and domestic
purposes. the largest dam in the world
is the 'three gorges dam'in China [visualize] riparian areas are sensitive to variation in the hydrological cycle & serve as good indicators of the environmental change done by dam operations there are approx. 40,000 large dams and 800,000 small dams obstructing 2/3 of the freshwater flowing to the ocean dam in coboconk, on. beaver dam [riparian ecosystems have a central ecological role in most landscapes]
-offer habitat for many species
-function as filters between land and water
-serve as pathways for dispersing and migrating organisms the water kept back by dams on earth is enough to cover all the dry land in the world 10cm deep [upstream effects]
happening above the dam [downstream effects]
happening below the dam storing large quantities of water cannot happen without far-reaching environmental consequences
habitat loss formation of new riparian zones as water volume increases, innundation, or flooding, of habitats increases alterations in habitats causes stress on species, potentially resulting in loss of entire species
when flooded soils and vegetation decompose, they release co2, methylmercury, nitrogen and phosphorus [impounded areas]
reservoirs upstream formed to store water impounded areas form shorelines, and thus riparian ecosystems storage reservoirs
run-of-river impoundments if a second order stream is influenced by a regulated first order stream, the entire stream order's water flow will be effected modification of the riparian zone
salinization, riparian communities & invasion of exotic species hoover dam reservoir flood peak and frequency of overbank flooding is reduced and sometimes displaced in time reduction of groundwater recharge resulting in a falling groundwater table reduction in sediment transport riparian pioneer species require riparian habitat (i.e., flood) to survive; changes in the hydrological regime start a new succession of riparian communities occurence of diebacks due to salinization of floodplain soils caused by reduced flooding riparian rivers are vulnerable
to invasive species because they
are dynamic, have recurrent
disturbances, water availability,
and allow for dispersal across
the landscape there is a need to
increase both the
spatial and temporal
scales at which
systems are studied studies of effects
within catchment areas; longitudinal
linkages (across the river). differences in effects between
catchment areas; rivers vary in
catchment geography, this variation
affects responses to river regulation
in individual rivers studies in changes with time; retrospective
studies, chonosequence studies, mathematical
models, long-term monitoring the demands of increasing
human populations on water resources threaten to impair reparian ecosystems to the point where environmental and human health is at great risk