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Transcript of Senior Seminar
http://www.sleepcycle.com/howitworks.html Sleeping may appear to be a passive state, but there is a lot of activity taking place. Dream Deprivation
REM-rebound and increased attempts to dream (REM pressure)
Behavioral changes support theory that dreaming is necessary. Sleep Apnea
Restless Leg Syndrome So why do we dream? 1981
Lucid Dreaming Verified by Volitional Communication During REM Sleep. Any chemical which is active in the brain can potentially influence sleep. There is still no concrete answer. Freud - Symbols and repression
Jung and Adler - Metaphors relative to waking life
Hobson and McCarley- Activation-Synthesis Theory; Theory of protoconsciousness
Revonsuo - Practice for threat avoidance
Rossi - Dream protein hypothesis
Emotional Selection and Schema Adaptation Theory Alcohol significantly increases slow-wave sleep (SWS) in the first half of the night and reduces REM density in the beginning of the night. Severe sleep disturbances such as overwhelming REM-rebound may increase the risk of relapse! Perception of Sleep and Dreams in Alcohol-Dependent Patients during Detoxification and Abstinence (2010)
Patients with alcohol dependency described their dreams more often as negatively toned. Demonstrated that the subjective quality of sleep and dreams is strongly impaired in patients with alcohol dependency. After the first night of dream deprivation, the number of forced awakenings required to suppress dreaming steadily increased.
If the results for two subjects who did not show marked increases on the first recovery night are excluded, the mean dream time represents a 50% increase over the group base-line mean.
Psychological changes disappeared as soon as subjects were allowed to dream again.
Covered his bases by conducting a study in which participants were awakened in the intervals between dream periods. William Dement
Should dreaming be considered necessary in a psychological sense, physiological sense or both? The Dreamsign Inventory INNER AWARENESS ACTION FORM CONTEXT You have a peculiar thought, a strong emotion, feel an unusual sensation, or have altered perceptions. It can be inappropriate or oddly overwhelming. Sensations can include the feeling of paralysis as well as unusual physical feelings and unexpectedly sudden or intense sexual arousal. Thoughts Emotions Sensations Perceptions You, another dream character, or a dream thing (including inanimate objects and animals) do something unusual or impossible in waking life. The action must occur in the dream environment, that is, not be a thought or feeling in the dreamer's mind. Malfunctioning devices are examples of object action dreamsigns. Ego action Character action Object action Your shape, the shape of a dream character, or that of a dream object is oddly formed, deformed, or transforms. Unusual clothing and hair count as anomolies of form. The place or situation in the dream is strange. You may be somewhere that you are unlikely to be in waking life, or involved in a strange social situation. Also, you or another dream character could be playing an unaccustomed role. Objects or characters may be out of place, or the dream could occur in the past or future. Ego form Character form Setting form Object form Ego role Character role Character place Object place Setting place Setting time Situation Dream-Initiated Lucid Dream vs. Wake-Initiated Lucid Dream It is possible for lucid dreamers to signal intentionally to the environment while continuing to dream. "Never had I experienced such clarity and perception--the colors were so beautiful and the sense of freedom so exhilarating that I started racing through this beautiful golden wheat field waving my hands in the air and yelling at the top of my voice, 'I'm dreaming! I'm dreaming!' Suddenly, I started to lose the dream; it must have been the excitement. I instantly woke up. As it dawned on me what had just happened, I woke my wife and said, 'I did it! I did it!' I was conscious within the dream state and I'll never be the same. Funny isn't it? How a taste of it can affect one like that. It's the freedom, I guess; we see that we truly are in control of our own universe." We all dream, so please stop telling me you don't. Theories Functions Lucidity Content Importance Sleep Cycles Deprivation Aserinsky, E. & Kleitman, N. (1953). Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science, 118, 273-274.
Coutts, R. (2008) Dreams as modifiers and tests of mental schemas: An emotional selection hypothesis. Psychological Reports, 102, 561-574.
Dement, W. and Kleitman, N. (1957) Cyclic variations in EEG during sleep and their relation to eye movement, body mobility, and dreaming. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 9:673-690.
Dement, W. (1960) The Effect of Dream Deprivation. Science, 131:3415, 1705-1707.
Dijk, D. J., Brunner, D. P, Aeschbach, D., Tobler, I., &Borbely, A. A. (1992). The effects of ethanol on human sleep EEG power spectra differ from those of benzodiazepine receptor agonists. Neuropsychopharmacology, 7(3):225-232.
Feige, B. et. al. (2006) Effects of Alcohol on Polysomnographically Recorded Sleep in Healthy Subjects. Alcoholism, 30:9, 1527-1537.
Gackenbach, J. Sleep and Dreams: A Sourcebook. Garland Pulishing, New York & London 1987.
Hobson, A. (2009) REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness. Neuroscience, 10, 803-813.
Kobayashi, T., Makokoro, S., Wada, Y., Misaki, K., & Nakagawa, H. (2002). Effect of ethanol on human sleep using correlational dimension analysis. Neuropsychobiology, 46:104-110.
LaBerge, S. & Rheingold, H. Exploring the World of Lucid dreaming. New York. Ballantine Books, 1990.
LaBerge, S. (1990) Lucid dreaming Psychophysiological Studies of Consciousness during REM Sleep. Sleep and Cognition. 109-126.
LaBerge, S., Nagel, L., Dement, W. & Zarcone, V. (1981). Lucid Dreaming Verified by Volitional Communication During REM Sleep. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 52, 727-732.
Oswald, I. (1969). Sleep, Dreaming and Drugs. Social Medicine, 62, 151-153.
Rundell, O. H., Williams, H. L., & Lester B. K. (1977). Sleep in alcoholic patients: Longitudinal findings. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, (85B):389-402
Steinig, J., Foraita, R., Happe, S., & Heine, M. (2011). Perception of sleep and dreams in alcohol-dependetent patients during detoxication and abstinence. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 46:2, 143-147.
Stone, B. M. (1980). Sleep and low doses of alcohol. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 48(6):706-709. Length of sleep cycles averaged 90 minutes.
Average 4-6 cycles.
20% of total sleep time spent dreaming.
Stages of NREM shorten while duration of REM increases with each cycle.
Continues to change with age.
Video 10:05-14:05 Alcohol = REM Suppression
Withdrawal = REM Increase Level of REM suppression experienced is directly related to blood alcohol concentration (BAC). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8hAw1z8GdE8_ http://science.discovery.com/tv-shows/through-the-wormhole/videos/through-the-wormhole-movie-of-our-dreams.htm Dement Video: 23:12-25:02 Video: 14:05-15:10