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AP Psych 40 Studies
Transcript of AP Psych 40 Studies
Dependent Variable: the effects of stimulation/inhibition of certain parts of the brain on sleep and dream patterns The Study Results Dreaming has no psychoanalytic significance, is it purely physiological.
Dreaming is an inside job. It has no outside influence.
Dreams are products of a synthesis, not unconscious desires.
Freud: We forget our dreams because we do not want to remember them.
Hobson&McCarley: The brain chemicals that convert memories from short-term into long term are repressed during REM sleep. Implications Several psychologists and scientists have explored the role of dreams and attempted to interpret their meanings.
(ex. Sigmund Freud)
A study conducted by Harvard's Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley explores a purely technical explanation for dreams--hence the 'unromancing'
What is REM sleep? Theory During sleep, the parts of the brain that control voluntary movement and senses are inactive. ... but a section of the brainstem continues to generate neural impulses.
Although the impulses are useless, the brain tries to make sense of them, which results in pictures, thoughts, and even stories. Method Hobson and McCarley studied information compiled by previous researchers.
Conducted research on the sleeping patterns of animals (in this case cats)
Applied informationg gathered to humans (assuming there are no significant differences in sleep and dreams between humans and other mammals) Although the part of the brain that controls movement and sensory information are just as active while sleeping and dreaming as they are when one is fully awake, signals from the brain to move voluntary muscles and information coming from the sensory receptors are blocked.
exception: the eyes --> explains eye movement and images in dream state
The sleep cycle is fixed and follows a predictable schedule with different stages of sleep
However, for different mammals, the stages of sleep began and ended at different intervals.
When the cats entered REM sleep, a part of the brain called the pontine brain stem (pons) became more active. When this part of the brain was inhibited, the cats did not enter the REM state for weeks. Stimulation resulted in extended REM sleep.
==> the Pons triggers and manages dream state Temporary paralysis to protect sleeper
May explain inability to run away from danger and the feeling that you are moving in slow motion Dreams cannot be caused by unconscious desires or events because that would result in irregular intervals of sleep.
Sleep and dreams occur for purely physiological reasons. According to Dictionary.com....
n. A stage in the normal sleep cycle during which dreams occur and the body undergoes marked changes including rapid eye movement, loss of reflexes, and increased pulse rate and brain activity. Also called paradoxical sleep.
NREM sleep: opposite of REM
("regular sleep") DEMO Applications Allan Hobson published Sleep in which he explained dreaming in simplified terms.
Foulkes, a leading researcher on daydreaming, shares the Hobson & McCarley's perspective on dreaming.
The article "A Jekyll and Hyde Within" summarized a study where researchers examined dreams in REM sleep vs dreams in NREM sleep.
Represents a novel approach to a common concept
Shows need to keep an open mind about science Criticism & Controversy Debate between psychoanalysts and believers in Hobson & McCarley's approach
There have been researchers who conduct studies to challenge this PoV Discussion Questions How does this study relate to the chapter we are studying in class? What is YOUR opinion? Do you believe in the Freudian or Hobson & McCarley PoV? Study by Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley THE END :)