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Learning How to translate Foreign News Discovering Strategie

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Samantha Herbert

on 4 December 2013

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Transcript of Learning How to translate Foreign News Discovering Strategie

Learning How to translate Foreign News Discovering Strategies in Translation of Press Text

Introduction
This study was done to discover the strategies that were used by a group of experienced translators at different universities and colleges when translating foreign news in international and national English newspapers.
Background of the study
People are so familiar with newspapers that they may look over that one important section that can open their eyes to other parts of the world is "foreign news". How could we know what are happening in other countries if there were no translators? Translators play important role in helping any readers go together with world situations.

However , translators seem to be forgotten. In addition, foreign news that are translated in newspapers are less given attention than other kinds of news. That is , foreign news seems not the most interesting written section in a newspaper.
Text and Textual Analysis
Textual analysis involves the analysis of the way propositions are structured and the way propositions are combined and sequenced ( Fairclough , 1995 )
Conclusion, Discussion and Recommendations
The main purpose of this study was to find out the strategies that were used by the translator team when translating foreign news in translation classes. There were eight aspects about concepts in translation strategies made by Vinay and Darbelnet.

They were created by the translators or instructors in the classroom to solve translation problems and make the translation version become more understandable and meaningful. For example , omitting word or words and adding some explanation or a word or words or choosing the words that stimulated the readers' feelings or reactions.
Some aspects about concepts in translation strategies introduced by Vinay and Darbelnet (1995 /2004), were used.
They are:

1. Abstract for concrete
2. To change double negative phrases into positive ones and vice versa
3. To use words that refer to specific meanings instead of words that refer to general meaning
4. To use active voice instead of passive voice
5. To change the order of words
6. Rethinking of intervals and limits between two cultures.
The result of this study was that certain strategies were used most by the translators and some of them were used least. This study has pedagogical implications for teaching translating press texts as well as the translators who show volition to work on translating press texts.

The main purpose of this study is to learn about the strategies that the translators used when translating foreign news.
Purpose of this study
Scope of the study
This study focuses on a team of translators who are currently translating and teaching The foreign news at the Islamic Azad University Garmsar Branch , Tehran North Branch , Elmikarbordi college and Seda and Sima College of translation.They were asked to participate in this study as the informants of this translation project.
1.Mr. Seyd Hassan Jamshidiyan
2.Mr.Hossein Younesi
3.Mr.Mahyar Azizsoltani
4.Mr.Shirzad Mansouri
The logic behind the selection of this team of translators were their experience and expertise in translation of press texts as well as their familiarity with teaching and theoretical background of principles of translation in Iranian Academic atmosphere.
Definitions of Terms
1.News article refers to randomly selected news articles from different sources. 2.Translators means the experienced translators of foreign news invited for this research.
3.Translation methods indicate how to translate texts which are divided into two main types:
3.1.Literal translation : a rendering which preserves surface aspects of the message both semantically and syntactically , adhering closely to ST mode of expression.( Hatim and Munday , 2004 )
3.2.Free translation : a translation that modifies surface expression and keeps Intact only deeper levels of meaning. ( Hatim and Munday, 2004 )

4.Translation Strategies : refers to the methods or procedures ( Hatim and Munday,2004 ) that the translators modify translated texts into target language based on theories made by Vinay and Darbelnet (1958/1995).
They were classified into two levels as follow:

4.1.Level 1 : lexical level
1.Abstract for concrete
2.Part-part
3.Use words that refer to specific meaning instead of Words that refer to general meanings
4.To change double negative phrase into positive ones and vice versa.

4.2.Level 2 : syntactic level 5.To change the order of the words.
6.Negation of opposite
7.To use active ones instead of passive ones or vise versa
8.To fill the communicative gaps existing between two cultures or rethink of intervals and limits between two cultures
Review of Related Literature
For the English language students who have chosen translation as their major of study, newspapers are regarded as a good base for language study with their wide variety of text-types and language styles.
Generally speaking , working on newspapers will have certain impacts on foreign language learners.Rahimy (2003 ) has mentioned these effects as follow:

1.Sharing attitudes and behaviors as well as the understanding values of other Communities. 2.Attaining new information in different fields. 3.Being well-prepared to use the attained information in real situations of Language environment.
4.Deducing language features ( a lot of cultural information about the interests and values of reading the public).
Newspapers are cultural artifacts. The print media of different countries and different cultures differ in a variety of ways. The American press , for instance , has tabloid newspapers that are very different in format and in many ways in content ,from Persian one. This is not to say that the Persian version is necessarily worse or better than the press of other countries – but that whatever it is , it is a product of the culture it comes from.
It is also important to remember that texts operate within a cultural context ; that is , they are created within a particular culture , and operate within the value system of that culture.
Text types and Translation
Translation Strategies
Strategies for News Translation
Data Analysis and Results
Richardson ( 2007 ) assumes that every aspect of textual content is the result of a choice –choice to use one way of describing a person an action or a process over another ; the choice to include a particular fact or opinion or argument over another, etc .In more detail , the analysis of these choices in texts
Covers traditional forms of linguistic analysis–analysis of vocabulary and semantics, the grammar of sentences and smaller units and the sound system (phonology) and writing system.
But it also includes analysis of textual organization above the sentence, including the ways in which sentences are connected together ( cohesion ) and things like the organization of turn-taking in interviews or the overall structure of a newspaper article.(Fairclough1995,57)
Translation involves the process of replacing textual elements of SL (source Language ) with those of TL ( target language ) during which the translator should try to adopt measures for the writer of the text and readers of its translation to be able to interact (Saedi , 1992 ,70 )Such a definition seems true for the press texts.

However, apart from the definition , text styles should also be taken into account.Peter Newmark ( 1988 ,41 ) believes that there is a familiar , racy , non-technical style for popular press ,characterized by surprising metaphors , short sentences, unconventional punctuation , adjectives before proper names and colloquialism.Nevertheless , it should be noted that metaphors can be a yardstick For the formality of the text.
Modulation at the level of message is subdivided along the following strategies which are the main concern in this research:
Abstract for concrete
Cause _ effect
Part –whole
Part-another part
Change of word order (reversal terms )
Negation of opposite
Active to passive (and vice versa )
Filling the communicative gaps between two cultures change of symbols
The scholars continue by giving a list of five steps for the translator to follow in moving from ST to TT ; these are :
1.Identify the units of translation
2.Examine the SL text , evaluating the descriptive ,affective and intellectual Content of the units.
3.Reconstruct the meta linguistic context of the message.
4.Evaluate the stylistic effects.
5.Produce and revise the TT
Alan Duff ( 1991 ) Guides six principles that can be used as strategies when the translator has got problems when translating.They are meaning , form, register, SL influence ,style and Clarity and idioms.Meaning ,form ,style and clarity and idioms can be changed to make it understandable and acceptable in TL.Moreover , the translator should be careful about register and SL influence because they can affect when translating into TL.
As Mcloughlin ( 2000) and Reah (1998 ) state that the first aim of news is to report factual event.Its writing style is unique in both vocabulary and structure of words and sentence.News is not very complicated because it was written for readers of different backgrounds e.g. life style, education or attitudes.
For news translation methods , there are three important factors to be considered as news translation methods.They are :
1.News structures
2.Sentences and verb
3.vocabularies which are short generally known and stimulate reader's feelings.
After analyzing the data obtained from ten pieces of foreign news translated in Translation classes during 1st of Mehr -1st of Azar 1386 (23 rd of Sep.-22nd Nov.2007) Comparing to their English copies , the results of each strategies that were used by the Translator team were as follow:
This study was done to find out translation strategies based on concepts introduced by Vinay and Darbelnet. It was found that the translator team followed and agreed to use these strategies. However , there were other strategies that did not belong to Vinay and Darbelnet concepts.

The reason of this was that news had its own writing style or language characteristics, thus there must be some specific translation strategies for news only , like to use the words that stimulate readers' feelings ,or to delete unnecessary words or parts. As a result , Vinay and Darbelnet concepts might not cover all that needed to be used for news translation ,so other news translation strategies were found in this study.
Conclusion
Discussion
This study may come to recommend the followings for research consumers as well as those who prefer to have ideas for further studies.
Recommendations
1.Other news translators can use this study as a guideline to solve problems. It may also be helpful for translators of any kind of text
2.The instructors who teach journalism or other related fields can use this study to clarify differences between English and Persian news structures.
3.The students who study English translation as their major can apply the same analysis to use these strategies for what the translate and study, their assignment as well as their future careers because this will help them understand the differences
4.It is also possible for other researchers to apply other strategies and methods of translation such as those introduced by Van Leuven-Zwart's in respect to translation of press texts as well as other types of texts presented in
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