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BRITISH CULTURE

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Nicholas Gregory

on 31 March 2014

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Transcript of BRITISH CULTURE

*
Cucumber Sandwiches
*
Roast Beef &
Yorkshire Pudding
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Trifle
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Cottage Pie
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Black Pudding
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Beef Wellington
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Cornish Pasty
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Fish And Chips
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Mushy Peas
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Black Pudding
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Steak And Kidney Pie
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Pork Pie
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Jellied Eels
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Rice pudding
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Haggis
BRITISH

FOODS & DISHES
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What are British dishes and Drinks? ✔
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What are common British sports? ✔
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What are some English traditions? ✔
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Why does The UK have a Monarchy?
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What are some british festivals and celebrations?
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Why Does the UK Have Two Flags (English, Union Jack)
QUESTIONS
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Bonfire Night
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The Queens Jubilee
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Pancake Day
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Sunday Roast
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Church on Sundays
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The Queens Birthday ( 4
th
June )
BRITISH
WHY DO THE BRITS HAVE A
BRITISH CULTURE
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Tea
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Ginger Beer
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Punch
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Cider
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Pims
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Fruit Cup
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Gin And Tonic
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Barley Water
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lager
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Scotch
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Dandelion And Burdock
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Lemon Lime and Bitters
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Ale
COMMON SPORTS THE
BRITS PLAY
1
.
)
FOOTBALL
2
.
)
CRICKET
3
.
)
RUGBY
FOOTBALL
:
The most popular sport in the UK, association football was first codified in 1863 in London. It is known in the US and other countries as 'soccer.' The impetus for this was to unify English public school and university football games. There is evidence for refereed, team football games being played in English schools since at least 1581. An account of an exclusively kicking football game from Nottingham shire in the fifteenth century bears striking similarity to football. The playing of football in England is documented since at least 1314. England is home to the oldest football clubs in the world (dating from at least 1857), the world's oldest competition (the FA Cup founded in 1871) and the first ever football league (1888). The modern passing game of football was developed in London in the early 1870s For these reasons England is considered the cradle of the game of football.
The governing body for football in England is The Football Association which is the oldest football organization in the world. It is responsible for national teams, the recreational game and the main cup competitions. They have however lost a significant amount of power to the professional leagues in recent times.
English football has a league system which incorporates thousands of clubs, and is topped by four fully professional divisions. The elite Premier League has 20 teams and is the richest football league in the world. The other three fully professional divisions are the run by The Football League, the oldest league in the world, and include another 72 clubs. Annual promotion and relegation operates between these four divisions and also between the lowest of them and lower level or "non-League" football. There are a small number of fully professional clubs outside the top four divisions, and many more semi-professional clubs. Thus England has over a hundred fully professional clubs in total, which is considerably more than any other country in Europe.
The two main cup competitions in England are the FA Cup, which is open to every Mens football team in England; and the League Cup (currently known as the Capital One Cup), which is for the 92 professional clubs in the four main professional divisions only.
Each season the most successful clubs from each of the home nations qualify for the two Europe-wide club competitions organized by UEFA, the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League (formerly the UEFA Cup). England has both produced winners of each of these competitions.
The England national football team won the World Cup in 1966 when it was hosted in England. Since then, however, they have failed to reach a final of a major international tournament, though they reached the semi-finals of the World Cup in 1990 and the quarter-finals in 1986, 2002 and 2006, as well as the quarter-finals of Euro 2004 and 2012.
The FA hopes that the completion of the National Football Center will go some way to improving the national team's performance.
CRICKET
:
Cricket is another popular team sport in England. Although there is some debate about the origins of the game, modern cricket is generally believed to have originated in England with the laws of cricket - adhered to by players at all levels worldwide - established by the London-based Marylebone Cricket Club. Although the origins of cricket in England date back as far as the sixteenth century, formal laws of the game began to be developed in the eighteenth century. Most recently, the globally popular Twenty20 Format of cricket was innovated in England at the turn of the 21st century.
The England national cricket team is one of the ten Full Members of the International Cricket Council, enabling England to participate in Test, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 International matches, as well as the ICC Cricket World Cup. Cricket in England is administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board, having been overseen by the Test and County Cricket Board until 1997.
England's professional domestic system consists of eighteen teams from the historic counties of England and Wales. These clubs participate in the County Championship, a two-tiered First Class cricket competition recognized as one of the oldest domestic cricket tournaments in the world, as well as the limited overs ECB 40 tournament (known as the Yorkshire Bank 40 for sponsorship reasons as of 2013) and the Friends Life t20. Twenty more clubs compete in the amateur Minor Counties Cricket Championship.
Cricket is a popular recreational sport in England, with hundreds of clubs playing at various levels; village cricket in particular is regarded as a key aspect of English culture. The Lancashire League was formed in 1892 and is renowned for the extensive list of professional players who have participated in it, particularly during the middle of the twentieth century.
Lord's Cricket Ground, located in the St. John's Wood area of London, is known as "the home of cricket" and in addition to housing the Marylebone Cricket Club, is also the headquarters of the European Cricket Council and was until 2005 the headquarters of the International Cricket Council. England has hosted four ICC Cricket World Cups to date, in 1975, 1979, 1983 and 1999, and is scheduled to host the 2019 competition. In addition to these tournaments, England has also hosted the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and the ICC Champions Trophy in 2004 and 2013.
England enjoys a hotly-contested and storied rivalry with Australia, against whom they compete for the Ashes in a contest that dates back to the nineteenth century. As of 2013, England are holders of the Ashes having retained the trophy on their tour of Australia in the 2010-11 season. The English cricket team also enjoys rivalries against India And the West Indies, although the latter is no longer as fierce as it was during its peak in the 1980s.
England is also a pioneering nation in the sport of Indoor Cricket. The first organized indoor cricket league in the world took place in 1970 in North Shropshire, and the first national tournament was completed in 1976 with over 400 clubs taking part. By 1979 over 1000 clubs were taking part in indoor cricket in the UK, and it remains extremely popular today with many leagues around the country.

RUBGY
:
Like association football, rugby union and rugby league both developed from traditional British football games in the 19th century. Rugby was codified by the Rugby Football Union in 1871. The Rugby Football League developed after a number of leading clubs, that wished to be allowed to compensate their players for missing work, formed their own governing body in 1895 and subsequently the two organizations developed somewhat different rules. For much of the 20th century there was considerable antagonism between rugby league, which was a mainly working class game based in the industrial regions of northern England, and rugby union, which is a predominantly middle class game in England, and is also popular in the other home nations. This antagonism has abated since 1995 when the International Rugby Board opened rugby union to professional players.
TRADITIONS

SHROVE
TUESDAY
Shrove Tuesday, a moveable feast, is determined by Easter. The expression "Shrove Tuesday" comes from the word shrive, meaning "confess". Shrove Tuesday is observed by many Christians, including Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists and Roman Catholics, who "make a special point of self-examination, of considering what wrongs they need to repent, and what amendments of life or areas of spiritual growth they especially need to ask God's help in dealing with."
Being the last day before the penitential season of Lent, related popular practices, such as indulging in food that one sacrifices for the upcoming forty days, are associated with Shrove Tuesday celebrations, before commencing the fasting and religious obligations associated with Lent. The term Mardi Gras is French for "Fat Tuesday," referring to the practice of the last night of eating richer, fatty foods before the ritual fasting of the Lenten season, which begins on Ash Wednesday.
(
PANCAKE DAY
)
BONFIRE
NIGHT
In Great Britain, Bonfire Night is associated with the tradition of celebrating the failure of Guy Fawkes' actions on 5 November. The modern festival is, therefore, on 5 November, although some commercially-driven events are held at a weekend near to the correct date, to maximise attendance. Bonfire night's sectarian significance has generally been lost: it is now usually just a night of revelry with a bonfire and fireworks, although occasionally an effigy on Guy Fawkes is burned on the fire. Celebrations are held throughout Great Britain, in parts of Northern Ireland, and in some other parts of the Commonwealth. In the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, 5 November is commemorated with bonfires and firework displays, and it is officially celebrated in South Africa.
In Northern Ireland, the term "Bonfire Night" can refer to the Eleventh Night celebrations of 11 July. Like 5 November, this Bonfire Night also has its roots in the sectarian struggle between Protestants and Catholics. It celebrates the Battle of the Boyne of 1690, in which the Protestant William of Orange defeated the Catholic James II. The 23 June Bonfire Night in Ireland has its origins in a religious celebration and originally featured prayers for bountiful crops.

QUEENS

JUBILEE
The Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II was a multinational celebration throughout 2012 marking the 60th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II on 6 February 1952. She is today queen regnant of 16 sovereign states, known as Commonwealth realms, including the United Kingdom. Queen Victoria, Elizabeth's great-great-grandmother, is the only other modern monarch to have celebrated a Diamond Jubilee (in 1897).
Commemorative events were held throughout the Commonwealth of Nations. Unlike the Golden Jubilee, when the Queen toured most of her realms around the world, for the Diamond Jubilee, Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, toured the United Kingdom only.
SUNDAY

ROAST
The Sunday roast is a traditional British and Irish main meal that is traditionally served on Sundays but can be eaten on any day of the week, consisting of roasted meat, roast potato or mashed potato,[citation needed] with accompaniments such as Yorkshire pudding, stuffing, vegetables and gravy. Other names for this meal are cooked dinner, Sunday dinner, Sunday lunch, Sunday tea, Roast dinner, and Sunday joint (joint referring specifically to the joint of meat). The meal is often comparable to a less grand version of a traditional Christmas dinner. Besides being served in its original homelands, the tradition of a Sunday dinner has been a major influence on food cultures in the global British and Irish diasporas (the Anglosphere) and notably in English Canada, particularily Newfoundland
CHURCH
If they're christian
They can.
4TH OF JUNE
The Queen's Official Birthday (King's Official Birthday in the reign of a male monarch) is the selected day on which the birthday of the monarch of the Commonwealth realms (currently Queen Elizabeth II) is officially celebrated in those countries. The date varies as adopted by each Commonwealth country, but is generally around the end of May to the start of June, to coincide with a high probability of fine weather in the Northern Hemisphere for outdoor ceremonies.

The sovereign's birthday was first officially marked in the United Kingdom in 1748. Since then, the date of the king or queen's birthday has been determined throughout the British Empire and later the Commonwealth according to either different royal proclamations issued by the sovereign or governor or by statute laws passed by the local parliament. The exact date of the celebration today varies from country to country and except by coincidence does not fall on the day of the monarch's actual birthday (that of the present monarch being 21 April). In some cases, it is an official public holiday, sometimes coinciding with the celebration of other events. Most Commonwealth realms release a Birthday Honours List at this time.

MONARCHY
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. The monarch's title is "King" (male) or "Queen" (female). The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, became ascended the throne on the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952.
The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial, diplomatic and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate formal executive authority over the government of the United Kingdom is still by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent.
The British monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England, which consolidated into the kingdoms of England and Scotland by the 10th century AD. In 1066, the last crowned Anglo-Saxon monarch, Harold II, was defeated and killed during the Norman conquest of England and the English monarchy passed to the Normans' victorious leader, William the Conqueror, and his descendents.
In the 13th century, Wales, as a principality, became a client state of the English kingdom, while the Magna Carta began a process of reducing the English monarch's political powers.
From 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the War of the Three Kingdoms. The Act of Settlement 1701, which is still in force, excluded Roman Catholics, or those who marry Catholics, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921.
In the 1920s, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the Union as the Irish Free State, and the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the dominions of the empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, effectively bringing the empire to an end. George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states.
The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. The terms British monarchy and British monarch are frequently still employed in reference to the shared individual and institution; however, each country is sovereign and independent of the others, and the monarch has a different, specific, and official national title and style for each realm

BRITISH
FESTIVALS
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BOG SNORKELING
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QUEENS JUBILEE'S
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CHINESE NEW YEAR
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APRIL FOOLS' DAY
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MOVEMBER
*
HALLOWEEN
BOG SNORKELING
August 24
Held in Wales but attracting international competitors, this event appeals to those who like their sport a little bit dirty. Llanwrtyd Wells hosts not only a bog snorkeling triathlon but also a world mountain bike bog snorkeling championship. The first can be an individual or team event, with two lengths of 60 yards spent swimming through filth. The second puts you deep in a 6ft bog on a specially adapted bike, with nothing but a mask and snorkel.
QUEENS
JUILEE
The Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II was a multinational celebration throughout 2012 marking the 60th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II on 6 February 1952. She is today queen regnant of 16 sovereign states, known as Commonwealth realms, including the United Kingdom. Queen Victoria, Elizabeth's great-great-grandmother, is the only other modern monarch to have celebrated a Diamond Jubilee (in 1897).
Commemorative events were held throughout the Commonwealth of Nations. Unlike the Golden Jubilee, when the Queen toured most of her realms around the world, for the Diamond Jubilee, Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, toured the United Kingdom only.
January 6th
CHINESE
NEW YEAR
Outside Asia, the world’s biggest celebration of Chinese New Year is in London – there is a parade through Chinatown in the West End, with music, acrobatics and dance performances, a feast of food and fireworks – but there are many more events around the UK. Cities including Manchester, Nottingham, Liverpool and Birmingham usually host big street parties
February 31st
APRIL
FOOLS
For one day of the year, it is acceptable – even encouraged! – to play tricks, pranks and practical jokes. Even newspapers, TV and radio shows often feature fake stories on April 1. It’s customary to reveal the joke by saying ‘April fool!’ (the person who falls for the joke is the ‘fool’), and to stop playing tricks at midday.
April 1st
MOVEMBER
If you’re seeing more moustaches than usual, you’re not imagining it – throughout November, the charity campaign of Movember invites men to grow a moustache and raise awareness of men’s health issues.
HALLOWEEN
October 31st
The modern way of celebrating Halloween is based on the Christian feast of All Hallows’ Eve and the Celtic festival of Samhain. Children go trick-or-treating (knocking on neighbours’ doors to ask for sweets) or carve pumpkins, while older students go to parties and Halloween events at pubs, clubs or Students’ Unions – the important thing is to dress up as gruesomely as you dare!
UNION JACK
UNION JACK
The current design of the flag dates from the union of Ireland and Great Britain in 1801. It consists of the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England), edged in white, superimposed on the Cross of St Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which are superimposed on the Saltire of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland). Wales, however, is not represented in the Union Flag by Wales's patron saint, Saint David, as at the time the flag was designed Wales was part of the Kingdom of England.
The flag's correct height-to-length proportions are 1:2. However, the version used by the British Army modifies the proportions to 3:5 and also crops two of the red diagonals.
The earlier flag of Great Britain was established in 1606 by a proclamation of King James VI and I of Scotland and England. The new flag of the United Kingdom was officially created by an Order in Council of 1801, reading as follows:
The Union Flag shall be azure, the Crosses saltire of Saint Andrew and Saint Patrick quarterly per saltire, counter-changed, argent and gules, the latter fimbriated of the second, surmounted by the Cross of Saint George of the third fimbriated as the saltire
VI and I of Scotland and England. The new flag of the United Kingdom was officially created by an Order in Council of 1801, reading as follow
The Union Flag shall be azure, the Crosses saltire of Saint Andrew and Saint Patrick quarterly per saltire, counter-changed, argent and gules, the latter fimbriated of the second, surmounted by the Cross of Saint George of the third fimbriated as the saltire.

ENGLISH FLAG
In 1188 Henry II of England and Philip II of France agreed to go on a a crusade, and that Henry would use a white cross and Philip a red cross. 13th-century authorities are unanimous on the point that the English king adopted the white cross, and the French king the red one (and not vice versa as suggested by later use). It is not clear at what point the English exchanged the white cross for the red-on-white one.

There was a historiographical tradition claiming that Richard the Lionheart himself adopted both the flag and the patron saint from Genoa at some point during his crusade. This idea can be traced to the Victorian era, Perrin (1922) refers to it as a "common belief", and it is still popularly repeated today, even though it cannot be substantiated as historical

Red crosses seem to have been used as a distinguishing mark worn by English soldiers from the reign of Edward I (1270s), or perhaps slightly earlier, in the Battle of Evesham of 1265, using a red cross on their uniforms to distinguish themselves from the white crosses used by the rebel barons at the Battle of Lewes a year earlier. Perrin (1922:37) notes a roll of accounts from 1277 where the purchase of cloth for the king's tailor is identified as destined for the manufacture of a large number of pennoncels (pennons attached to lances) and bracers (worn by archers on their left forearms) "of the arms of Saint George" for the use by the king's foot soldiers (pro peditibus regis). Perrin concludes from this that the introduction of the Cross of St George as a "national emblem" is originally due to Edward I. By 1300, there was also a greater "banner of St George", but not yet in a prominent function; the king used it among several banners of saints alongside the royal banner. Saint George had become popular as a "warrior saint" during the crusades, but the saint most closely associated with England was Edward the Confessor until the time of Edward III, who in thanks for Saint George's supposed intervention in his favour at the Battle of Crécy gave him a special position as a patron saint of the Order of the Garter in 1348.[8] From that time, his banner was used with increasing prominence alongside the Royal Banner and became a fixed element in the hoist of the Royal Standard. The flag shown for England in the Book of All Kingdoms of 1367 is solid red (while St. George's Cross is shown for Nice and, in a five-cross version, for Tblisi). John Cabot, commissioned by Henry VII to sail "under our banners, flags and ensigns," reportedly took St. George's banner to Newfoundland in 1497.

St George's Day was considered a "double major feast" from 1415, but George was still eclipsed by his "rivals" Saints Edward and Edmund. He finally rose to the position of the primary patron saint of England during the English Reformation, with the revised prayer book of 1552, when all religious flags, including all saints' banners except for his were abolished. The first recorded use of St. George's Cross as a maritime flag, in conjunction with royal banners, dates to 1545.[dubious – discuss][1] In 1606 it was combined with the Scottish St. Andrew's Cross to form the Union Jack.

The concept of a national flag, as opposed to royal banners, naval ensigns or military flags, developed in the late 18th century, following the American and French Revolutions. In the 19th century, it became desirable for all nations of Europe (and later worldwide) to identify a national flag. Since during that time, the terms Britain and England were used largely interchangeably, the Union Flag was used as national flag de facto, even though never officially adopted. The observation that the Cross of St. George is the "national flag of England" (as opposed to the Union Flag being the flag of all of the United Kingdom) was made in the context of Irish irredentism, as noted by G.K. Chesterton in 1933,
"As a very sensible Irishman said in a letter to a Dublin paper: 'The Union Jack is not the national flag of England.' The national flag of England is the Cross of St. George; and that, oddly enough, was splashed from one end of Dublin to the other; it was mostly displayed on shield-shaped banners, and may have been regarded by many as merely religious"
IF
YOUR STILL VEWING THIS
GET
A LIFE THANKS
NICHOLAS' NOTE:
Full transcript