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Transcript of Teotihuacan
The Rise and Fall of The Empire
Nine Characteristics of
Three More Characteristics of a Civilization
The rise and Fall of The Empire
Presentation Made By:
Raquel de la Huerga, and
The Aztec Empire was sculpted by city-states. In the core of each city-state, there were large cities that had authority over that specific zone. For the most part, the Aztec's emperors chose not to bargain with these city-states, just as long as a tribute was paid.
The family of an Aztec generally starts when marriages are complete. Most men and women in the Aztec empire got married in their twenties. The marriages were arranged by relatives and elders. After an arrangement was discussed, the parents would negotiate with religious leaders that brought up the signs of which each child was born under. In the Aztec empire, a man was allowed to have more than one wife. Only children of the primary wife are granted as inheritors. Granted this unjust way of life, the man of the house was still to be obedient and treat each wife equally.
was called the calpulli. Most families weren't rich enough to own land, therefore, land was owned by groups of families, also the calpulli.
Writing- The language that the Aztec spoke was called Nahuatl. Nahuatl writing also was the primary language used to write for the Aztecs.
Laws: Aztec laws had a high complexity; they were based on royal decrees and on customs that had been traditional from past generations. Major laws were written down in pictographs for the use of judges.
Military- The Aztec military were structured in an organized fashion, which were put into groups called Capulli. These were only the basic soldiers. The highest ranks of soldiers were the Eagle or Jaguar Warriors.
Cities: The Aztec cities were part of city-states. The city states were spread throughout the empire. In the center of each city-state, there is a big city were authorizes the entire city-state.
Jobs: ALL SLAVES AND CHILDREN WERE REQUIRED TO GO TO SCHOOL. This was enforced by law. Being a teacher or professor was a specialized career/profession. Merchants, doctors, soldiers, and priests were mostly respected above everyone else though, excluding the emperor.
Advanced Technology: The Aztecs brought forth a great amount of advanced technology unto our civilizations today, such as the development of mathematics, the canoe, the Aztec calendar, and many brews of medicine.
Leisure: Aztecs took a liking into the game of Ullamaliztli. The game was played on a tlachtli ball court. Many people have seen this game in movies. If you knock the hard rubber ball into the hoop you win.
Social Classes: The Aztecs followed a very difficult social hierachy, where individuals were identified as pipiltin (nobles), macehualtin (commoners), serfs, or SLAVES!!!!!! Nobles were built up from military leaders, high-level priests, and lords.
Complex religion: this was an interaction among the Gods. Their belief was that a feathered serpent (the Quetzalcoatl) would bring humans to life. They also focused excessively on maintaining nature's equilibrium.
Art and Architecture: Aztecs represented their architecture for religious purposes with pyramids to worship their Gods, and their artwork appreciated an abundance of different animals, such as birds, bugs, fish, and snakes. Stones and painted mosaics were very popular.
Time: There was one primary resource used to remember the Aztec's sense of time, which was their Aztec calendar. This helped them prepare for future events and keep track of their days.
RISE AND FALL OF AZTEC CIVILIZATION
Art & Architecture
Sense of Time
RISE: During a time span of 50 years after discovering Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs had spread their existence and political alliance across to other states and empires. Their civilization made a lasting impression into history with how well they fought and led their powerful systematic government.
FALL: By 1519, the Aztec's cycle of victory was at its peak, but over the next two years, it also came to an end. The conquistadors of the Spanish had destroyed the Aztec's culture.
Teotihuacan was located in present day Mexico. Much like the Mayans they had pyramid structured buildings. They were the second largest city in e pre-Colombian Americas
The Maya had strict laws which were carried out by batabs. If a law was broken the accused would appeared in court held in local meeting houses called poplinas where the local leaders or nobles served as judges. At the trial the judge would review evidence and listen to witnesses. If the person was found guilty, the punishment was carried out immediately. Crimes such as murder, arson, and acts against the gods were often punished with death. Since the Mayans didn't have prisons the punishment for lesser crimes was slavery, fines and sometimes they shaved the criminals head to make them look socially unacceptable.
Different social classes
Art and architecture
Sense of time
Little is known of there government to this day. It is believed that the fate of Teotihuacan laid in the hands of one ruler. To this day there is still no information on any of the names of the rulers.
They did not have what we know as a textual witting but more of an iconography. There was Mayan and Zapotec textual writing found.
They where a polytheistic civilization; like many other civilizations of the time. They did find an acute interest in the sun. Many of the sources i read from say there is a pyramid of sun. They did practice some sort of human sacrifice. They also looked at the sky and use the movements of the planets to base there religion off of.
Do to the lack of actual textual writing I was unable to find any actual laws that this civilization lived by.
According to what archeologist believe military was a big part in this civilization. There is evidence in both architecture and art that back up this theory. One of the most important parts to the military was the mirror they wore at the back of their armor.
Teotihuacan is a city itself so there is no known information of other cities; though Teotihuacan was known as the "city of the god's"
As in most civilizations Teotihuacan had the king/high priest at the top, royal family second, nobles third, merchants and artisans fourth and at the bottom commoners farmers and slaves.
The architecture are grand ruins we only imagine how great they where when the people where alive. They were so tall you could see them from miles away and recently they have found tunnels into a bottom section of the temple leading to a place they believe to have been the leaders tomb. They dominated trade with there "orange peel" pots. Many of the pots had paintings of military on them.
They used the sun alignment to have a sense of time. It also was a way to know when to harvest and plant crops
When they had the time they would write songs poetry and collect art
Rise of the Empire: The empire rose as they built there pyramids and people began to settle and multiply. Soon there culture was spreading through out Mexico and some parts of Honduras and Guatemala. At this point it reached its peak in population and power. But like history suggest everything that was once grand must fall
Fall of the Empire: The city was burned and abandoned. There is reason to believe it was do to the fact they used so much wood to build the city that it cause soil corrosion. This inevitably lead to inability of the soil to with hold such amounts of food needed to feed everyone
Some of the jobs in Teotihuacan were architects and builders Stucco workers, painters, sculptors warriors Priests, rulers, and Artisan
They had a drainage system and they had various tunnels and great pyramids that prove just how advanced they where when it came to technology
The Maya Empire didn't have a central government because it consisted of a collection of city-states. Each city-state was governed individually by a noble family and power was passed down to the next male heir. The head of the noble family in each city chose government officials to assist him. His officials could consist of retired warriors, elders, and members of his family who acted as judges and helped inforce the law. And the cities were connected by roads so officials could travel between cities on government business and to allow civilians to visit other city states, sometimes they did so to help other cities armies. Cities that had a larger armies had more power within the empire. Although there were many cities that ruled individually, the Mayan empire was unified through a shared language, religion, culture and laws.
Members of the Maya priesthood became scribes and were taught the written form of the Chi'otli' language. The Mayan script were written in hieroglyphics which is logosyllabic combining about 550 logograms to represent the entire word and 150 syllabograms that represent syllables. There were also about 100 glyphs that symbolized the names of places an gods. The script was usually written in a pair of vertical columns that read from left to right and top to bottom in a zigzag pattern. Script have been found carved in stone and written on bark, wood, jade, ceramics. These ts were discovered in Mexico, Guatemala and northern Belize.
The Mayans religion involved several aspects of nature, astronomy and rituals. The Mayans were known for their calenders and astronomical buildings. Which they used for religious events and to give sacrifices and offerings to the gods.
The religion was Polytheist, and they worshiped more than 165 Gods. The Gods were human-like and represented elements of the natural world. The Gods lived like humans and had certain responsibilities depending on their heirarchy.
The Mayan religion believed that when a person died their soul would spend its afterlife in the underworld which was full of evil gods represented as jaguars. The Mayans believed that every person had an animal companion who shared their soul. They were called, “Way’ ob”. The Mayan religion told that one could transform into their animal companion. Sacrifice was conducted using blood-letting (ritualized cutting) performed by the community, but run by the priest.
The Mayans built two types of pyramids, and one type was meant to be climbed. These pyramids were used during human sacrifices as offerings to the Gods. The other type of pyramid wasnt supposed to be climbed since these buildings were sacred and often were built with too steep of steps to climb. When these pyramids were being used, a priest would use the dangerous steps and get closer to the Gods. Each pyramids usually had two or four staircases, often including a platform between steps near the middle. Mayan pyramids have a flat top to build temples on top.
Art was an active part in the mayan life and included stone sculptures, carvings from wood, stucco, murals, body painting, sculptures, ceramics and writing.
Mayan cities were dispersed across Central America and seem to have minimal planning other than gradual expantion of each city spreading from a central pyramid or other important architectural structure. Cities were often along trade routes or had large surpluses of resources. Some of the larger cities include Coba (Mexico), Copan (Honduras), Tikal (Guatemala) and Carakol (Belize)
Some of the known specialized jobs withins the mayan civilizations were nobles, priests,scholars, soldiers, political officials, mathematicians, astronomers, poets, scribes, merchants, artists, hunters, gatherers, and slaves.
Some of the technological innovations of the Mayan civilization include their ability to make architectural structures like their elaborate pyramids and palaces. They had an advanced techniques for transporting water such as a tunnel system used to distributed water across the cities and civilizations, a pressurized water that had the ability to control water flow, reservoirs and aqueducts for water storage and maintenance through out dry and rainy seasons as well as an elaborated sewage system to dispose of wastes. Had metal tools and weapons which involved knowledge of metallurgy. The mayans also had knowledge of the wheel.
The mayans most infamous achievement was their intricate systems and advanced knowledge of time. They had created three calendars which were known as the Long Year, the Solar Year, and the Tzolk'in. The Long Year calendar was used to measure long periods of time which kept track of the "Great Cycle" which was the age of the world. Then there is the Solar Year calendar that most closely resembles the Gregorian calendar that we use today. They also had the Tzolk'in calendar which had only 260 days in a year and was used for religious purposes such as marking ceremonies.
The Mayan hierarchies are divided between the king, nobles, commoners and slaves.
At the top of the social class were the kings who governed the city states called the ahau or halach uninic. These kings performed religions acts and were powerful council leaders that were in charge of the goverment. The position was passed down hierachically.
Nobles were literate and wealthy, and typically lived in the central areas of Maya cities. They often served as rulers, government officials, military leaders, priests and local administrators.
Commoners worked as farmers, laborers, and servants and became more wealthy by working their way up to being artisans and merchants. They lived on the outskirts of the city and worked on shared plots of land.
Slaves were prisoners of war, orphans and criminals who worked the land for their private owner (could be a commoner or noble or maintaining public areas for town leaders as a way to pay back their debt.
The Mayans favorite pass time activity was playing or watching their ceremonial ball game which was played on a long, narrow court with the audience sitting on either side watching from above. It involved a players kicked or hitting a rubber ball (without using their hands) and had to go through a stone ring. This game had religious significance and sometimes losing teams were killed in sacrifice to their gods.
Other pass times were smoking tobacco or drinking a hot beverage made from cacao beans.
Wars and major raids were led by the king of a city state. Members of the highest ruling class often were military leaders of their cities and strategized and recruited for the war. Larger cities had well-trained armies available for attack and defense. Wars were started to acquire land, take prisoners, solve disagrement or to defend from attacks of other civilizations.
A Meso-American civilization consisting of a group of city-states in the Yucatan Peninsula (Honduras, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador And Mexico). They are well known for their advanced Pre-Columbian writing system, pyramid architecture, arts, unique polytheistic religion and accurate calendars.
The oldest known Mayan site has been carbon dated to around 2600 BCE. Yet the civilization is widely known to have been established in 1800 BCE.
The decline of the Mayan Civilizations is known as the Pre-Classic Callapse and occured around 100 AD. There is not definite known reason as to why the cites were abandoned yet some historians theorize that it was due to foreign invasion and warfare with other civilizations such as Teotihuacan; being related to the callapse of trade routes between the Maya and Teotihuacan which occurred around the same time as the civilizations decline; the spread of diseases; overpopulation along with a long drought; or the lack of agricultural resources due to the slask and burn method used to rejuvinate the land.