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Conflict With Mexico
Transcript of Conflict With Mexico
Americans settlers wanted more representation in Mexican legislature
-Texans of Mexican descent
-Hoped for a Democratic government that gave less power to the central government
-1933: Hopes were dashed when
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
became president of Mexico
-He wanted a strong central government with him as the leader
-Afterwards, he overturned Mexico's Democratic constitution + started a
, or one-person rule
Austin urged Texans to revolt against the Mexican government
-1863: Texans declared independence from Mexico + and create the Republic of Texas
Texas Wins Independence
-Spanish governor of Texas gave Moses Austin a land grant to establish a small colony in Texas.
-Led a group of some 300 Americans into TX
-Won independence from Spain
-Government agreed to honor Austin's claim to the land
-In return, Austin + colonists agreed to become Mexican citizens + and to worship in the Roman Catcholic Church
Texans at War
Santa Anna responded with force
-Troops laid siege to the Alamo, a mission in San Antonio where about 185 Anglo-Americans and Tejanos were gathered.
-siege: an attack in which one force surrounds a city or fort
The defenders of the Alamo held out for 12 days under heavy cannon fire
-Mexican forces overran the Alamo
-All defenders were killed in battle or executed afterward
-Inspired by the bravery of the Alamo defenders, many American volunteers joined the Texan army the Texan forces
Following April, the commander of the Texan forces,
, led a small army in a surprise attack agasint Santa Anna's army at San Jacinto
-Texans shouted "Remember the Alamo!"
-Within 18 minutes, the Texans had captured Santa Anna
-Forced him to sign a treaty recognizing Texan independence
Republic of Texas
Annexing Texas and Oregon
A decade after Texas won its independence, the annexation of Texas remained an unsettled question
Became a major issue in presidential election of 1844.
Tensions with Mexico
The annexation of Texas increased tensions with Mexico
-Mexico had never formally recognized Texan independence
-The treaty Santa Anna had been forced to sign at San Jacinto set the southern boundary of Texas at Rio Grande
-Mexican government claimed that the southern boundary of Texas was Nueces River, farther North
-Texas never controlled the areas between the two rivers
-Setting the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico would have given Texas much more land
Pres. Polk put pressure on Mexico to accept this claim.
-Still, Mexico refused
Conflict With Mexico
-1,000s of Americans flooded into TX
-Came into conflict with Mexican government
-Protestant, not Catholic
-Many were slaveowners from American South who wanted to grow cotton in TX
-However, Mexico abolished slavery
-Mexico tolerated these violations of its laws for a while
1830: Mexico banned further American settlement
-Americans kept arriving in TX
-Tensions increased as Mexico tried to enforce laws banning slavery + requiring settlers to worship in the Catholic Church
-Mexico began to levy heavy taxes on American imports
Sam Houston became president of the new Republic of Texas .
Hoped that the U.S would
, or add on, Texas
But public opinion in the U.S was divided
Southerners supported annexation as Texas as a slave state.
Northerners opposed this
Wanted westward expansion
Pres. Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren refused to support annexation
Feared that adding a slave state might spark a huge political fight that could split the union
Election of 1844
Favored annexation of Texas
Was nominated for a second term
1844: Whigs nominated Henry Clay instead
Hoped to avoid the issue of annexation
James K. Polk
Called for the annexation of Texas + Oregon
Oregon was jointly held by Britain + the U.S.
Demanded that the British withdraw from all territories south of latitude
Shortly before Polk took office, Tyler asked Congress to annex Texas
-1845: Congress voted for admission of Texas as a state
-Texas delegates quickly met and voted for annexation
Pres. Polk negotiated a treaty with Britain to divide Oregon
-The U.S. got the land south of latitude 49N
-Eventually this territory became the states of Washington, Oregon + part of Idaho
James K. Polk
Wanted to avoid
Called for annexation of Texas + Oregon