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AP Human Geography: Language (Ch. 5)
Transcript of AP Human Geography: Language (Ch. 5)
WORLD = 6,909 Languages
11 = spoken by 100 million +
153 = spoken by 3 million min
1st language - 328 Million
Official Language in 57 nations
predominant in 2 more
1/3 of the world lives in these nations
Spread via British Empire
...via American Empire?/Culture
Globalization vs. Local Diversity
- endangered languages
- merging languages
language contribute and take in words as it spread
Regional Variation of a Language: Vocab, Spelling, Pronunciation
Migration of People --> Linguistic Variation
Why so different = Extensive Isolation
Native American Influences
Nationalism (Webster Dictionary)
majority letter and print material over speech
Mass Media (TV and Radio) = Homogenization
New England Dialect
Middle Atlantic Dominates
West = More Uniformity
Language Family = Common Ancestry
Eastern Group (Indic)
Western Group (Iranian)
Devanagari = Writing System
Arabic Writing System
East, West, South, Baltic Groups
Bosnians (Muslims), Croats, Slovenians = Latin Alphabet
Montenegrans and Serbs = Cyrillic Alphabet
Latin - caballus - Horse
Italian - cavallor
Spanish - caballo
Portuguese - cavalo
French - cheval
Romanian - cal
90% of Spanish and Portuguese speakers live outside of Europe = Variation from "European"
Creole = mixed with indigenous
Domesticated horse as weapon of conquest
Language triumphed as speakers # grew/prospered
Origins in Cold Climate with Winter?
Common root words for winter and snow but not ocean
3/4th of China = Mandarin
Largest Language in the World
Southern and Eastern China more variety (Cantonese, Min, Jinyu, Xiang, Hakka, Gan)
420 one-syllable sounds + combinations to make two syllable sounds
listener must "infer" meaning from context and tone
Common Writing System Regardless of pronunciation
and ideograms (huge learning challenges due to the complex nature of the system)
Austronesian--> Indonesia (722 languages) Javanese dominates
Austro-Asiatic --> Southeast Asia (Vietnamese) - written in Roman alphabet
Tai-Kadai --> Thailand, Laos, S.China
Japanese --> part chinese ideograms, pat phonetic symbols
Korean --> "hankul" writing system - letter represents a sound
Afro-Asiatic --> Arabic, Hebrew.
Altaic --> Turkish (Kemal Ataturk - shift from Arabic to Roman writing system), Central Asian Languages
Uralic --> Estonia, Finland, and Hungary - carved out homelands from Germanic and Slavic peoples.
Arabic dominates the north
Sub-Sahara mostly (95%) of the Niger-Congo family
Nilo-Saharan - relatively few speakers
Khoisan - "clicking" sounds (Hottentot)
No longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone
473 Language "endangered"
46 in Africa
182 in the Americas
84 in Asia
9 in Europe
152 in the Pacific
Only 92 languages of 500 survive since Spanish contact with the eastern Amazon
Gothic and the Eastern Germanic Group entirely extinct
"Conversion" to other languages
Survived through Jewish religious services
Re-established as an official language of Israel
unified refugees speaking a plethora of languages.
Words had to be created for "new" objects and inventions
Survives only in remote Scotland, Wales, Ireland, and Brittany
Goidelic (Gaelic) Branch
Irish Gaelic (350,000 daily speakers)
Scottish Gaelic (59,000 speakers)
Welsh - 611,000 speakers
Cornish - extinct in 1777
"I will not speak English you ugly, black toad!"
Breton - 250,000 with French influence
Survival of Language often depends on political and military strength of its speakers
North = Flemings (Dutch Dialect - Flemish)
South = Walloons (French)
Historic animosity with Walloon domination
Switzerland = Peaceful Coexistence
Key = Decentralized Gov. with voter referendum
German - 65%
French - 18%
Italian - 10%
Romansh - 1%
Not related to any other and thus unattached to a family
Basque --> Pre-Indo-European (666,000 speakers in the Pyrenees Mnts.)
Icelandic --> Changed less than any other Germanic branch
"Language of the Franks"
Language of international communication
simplified form for use with speakers of other languages
Modern "Lingua Franca"
90% of EU students learn English in secondary schools
heavy emphasis in Japan
high foreign application to English speaking universities
Most effective way to to work in an increasingly global economy and culture
Swahili (East Africa)
Hindi (S. Asia)
Indonesian (S.E. Asia)
Russian (Former USSR)
Not Migration and Conquest as is the case for earlier languages
Recent spread of English
snowballing effect not relocation of people
1) New Vocabulary, Spelling, and Pronunciation
2) Fusion of words with other languages
Bottom up NOT top down as is the case with Relocation Diffusion
Ebonics - Distinct Dialect (Urban, Segregated, African-American)...can be similarly compared to Appalachian dialect.
Bidialectic / "Code Switching" - speak "standard" English beyond their native region and easily "slip back" into their regional dialect at home or in casual conversations.
effort to avoid "English" words in France and Quebec
1) Modified spelling to conform to Spanish pronunciation
replacing v with b - "vacuum cleaner = bacuncliner"
2) Drop Spanish words in favor of English words
parquin (parking) for estacionamiento
3)New words invented in Spanglish not yet existing in English
i-meiliar "to e-mail someone"
4) Mix English and Spanish in same phrase
"When he says me voy...what does he really mean?"
Best of Both Worlds?
English's ability to invent words
Spanish's ability to convey nuanced emotion
German-English Mix (more melodic or practical)
happy birthday vs. herzlichen gluuuchwunsch zum geburtstag
Deutchlandverbindungen (long distance) & Cityverbindungen (local)
Japanglish? - beisboru (baseball), naifu (knife)