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on 24 March 2018

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Transcript of chemistry

: Everything that has mass and occupies space .
: Variable composition
Pure Substances :
Fixed composition
Homogeneous Mixtures
: Have same composition throughout .
Hetrogeneous Mixtures
Do not have same composition throughout

Can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes always at constant composition
Elements :
Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes
This method is used to separate the volatile components of a mixture , sublimation is the process by which a solid is directly converted into vapor , and on cooling the vapor is directly converted in solid , Naphthalene , iodine , camphor sublimate , there fore , a mixture containing any of these substances can be separated by this process
Sedimentation and Decantation
This method can be employed to separate a mixture of an insoluble solid and a liquid , where the solid is heavier than the liquid
When a liquid mixture is passed through layers of a filter paper , the suspended solid of the liquid mixture is retained by the filter paper , while the liquid is allowed to pass through it
It is the process by which a liquid is converted into its vapor state and then the vapor is cooled to obtained the evaporation and condensation , Alcohol is prepared by this method
Fractional distillation
When a liquid mixture contains two or more components having different boiling points , they are separated by the method of fractional distillations , in this process the component having the lowest boiling points is distilled first at a particular temperature , and after its separation , the boiling point is raised to separate the next component mixture .
This method is used for the separation and purification of solid substances , the solid is dissolved in a suitable solvent at or near its boiling point , then the solution is filtered while it is hot and the clear solution is cooled slowly to room temperature

: It is a technique of separation of mixtures by passing them over columns or sheets of absorbent material ( one capable of binding and extremely thin layer of the molecules of gases , liquids or dissolved substances to it's surface which retard the passage of the individual components to different degrees
In this technique , separation is performed using the fact that large charged molecules ( especially proteins ) more at different rates , through a solution under the influence of an electrical field
Plasma :
It is a state of matter containing gaseous ions and occurs only very high temperature .
Atomic Structure
Ex :-
The matter in sun is in plasma state
Max Planck proposed quantum theory of radiation , energy , E is given by
According to Bohr model , electrons are revolving in specified paths called '' stationary orbits or stationary states are designated by K , L , M , N , O , ..... . . when an electron jumps from a higher orbit ( higher energy ) to lower orbit ( lower energy ) , energy is liberated , the angular momentum of electron is equal to integral multiples of h/2 , Bohr calculated the radii and energies of various orbits of hydrogen atom .
Stationary state is indicated by principle quantum number ' n ' and sub-stationary states by azimuthal quantum number I , the number of sub-stationary states in a given stationary state is dependent on the value of ' n '
n = 1 ( k -shell ) has one , n = 2 ( L-shell ) has two , n = 3 ( M-shell ) has three ......sub-stationary states
Magnetic quantum number is proposed by Lande's and designated as m , for a given ' I ' value , the number of m value is ( 2l + 1 ) , it ranges from -1 . . . . . 0 . . . . . +1 , m gives information regarding the orientation of orbital in the presence of magnetic field .
Spin quantum number ( s ) , can take only + 1 / 2 or . . . . - 1 / 2 values , the region is space where there is finite probability of finding electron is called ' atomic orbital ' .
Aufbau principle states that electron occupies the orbital having the least energy , an electron occupies an orbital whose ( n+l ) value is minimum .
If ( n + l ) value is same for two orbitals , it occupies the orbital having less' n ' value , orbitals having same energy are called

English Name Latin Name Symbol
Iron Ferrum Fe
Sodium Natrium Na
Potassium Kalium K
Copper Cuprum Cu
Silver Argentum Ag
Gold Aurum Au
Mercury Hydrargyrum Hg
Tin Stannum sn
Antimony Stibium sb
Types of Colloidal System
Dispersed Phase Dispersion Medium Type of colloid Examples
Solid Solid Solid sol Some coloured glasses ,
and gem stones
Solid Liquid sol Paints , cell fluids , smoke
Solid Gas Aerosol Smoke , dust
Liquid Solid Gel Cheese , butter ,jellies
Liquid Liquid Emulsion Milk , hair cream
Liquid Gas Aerosol Fog ,mist ,cloud insecticide
Gas Solid Solid sol Pumice stone , Foam rubber
Gas Liquid Foam Froth,whipped cream,soap lather
Types of Fire Extinguisher
a .
Water as fire extinguisher

: The most common fire extinguisher is water , but water
works only when things like wood and paper are on fire .
b .
Soda -acid fire extinguishers

: These are used to extinguish fire caused by oil burning
, these release carbon dioxide and also cools the
burning substance .
Oxidation and Reduction
xidation is the process in which a substance loses electrons ( in classical chemistry oxidation is defined as the process in which a substance adds on oxygen or loses hydrogen )

for example , sodium atom loses an electron and forms sodium ion
Reduction is the process in which a substance gains electrons ( or a substance adds on hydrogen or loses oxygen ) .
An example of reduction is a chlorine atom which gains an electron to form chlorine ion .
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
An oxidizing agent is a substance which brings about an oxidation reaction in other substances by accepting electrons form them .
Some important oxidizing agents are oxygen ( ) , hydrogen peroxide ( ), chlorine ( ) etc .
A Reduction agent is a substance which bring about a reduction reaction in other substance by losing electrons to them .
Acids , Bases and Salts
An acid is a substance which contains hydrogen , liberates hydrogen ions (
) in solution and turns litmus to red , Acids posses a sour taste and are corrosive ,
the three important acids are hydrochloric , sulphuric and nitric acids
A base is a substance which reacts with an acid to form a salt and water only , yields hydroxy ions ( negative ) i.e., containing oxygen and hydrogen , and turns litmus to blue , Bases which are highly soluble are called alkalies , Alkalies are bitter to taste , sodium , hydroxide ( caustic soda ) , sodium carbonate
P Scale :
The p

Value indicates the acidic or alkaline nature of a solution , the p scale is numbered from 0 to 14. p 7 indicates that a solution is neutral , a value less than 7 indicates that a solution is acidic and a value over 7 indicates that it is alkaline
UseFul Gases
Name Use
Acetylene To produce a hot flame for
Etheylene welding / cutting
Ammonia fertilizer , synthetic fibers , refrigeration
Butane Cigarette lighters / domestic fuel
CS gas Tear gas used in riots
Cyanogen welding , chemical weapons , rocket propellant .
Ether anaesthetic and industrial processes
Ethylene plastics , promoting the ripening of fruits .
Helium Fluorescent tubes , laser , balloons
Krypton Fluorescent tubes , high speed photography .
Names Use
Laughing gas Mild anaesthetic
Nitrous oxide
Methane to make chloroform
Neon illuminated signs that glow pink or red
Propane fuel and refrigerant
Radon Radiotherapy , atomic research
Xenon flash lamps and lasers
Carbon Cycle
The carbon cycle occurs in nature , it is the circulation of carbon as carbondioxide between living organisms and the atmosphere
The four elements fluorine , chlorine , bromine and iodine having closely related and graded properties are collectively called halogens
Dynamite - Invented by Alfred Noble
T.N.T - Trinitro Toluene
T.N.G - Trinitro Glycerol
T.N.P - Trinitro Phenol
R.D.X - Research and development Explosive
: The elements , have been classified mainly into metals and non metals ,
metals are more mumrous than non-metals
they are 83 metals and 21 non metals
Metals are solids at ordinary temperature and are volatile at very high temperature , ( the exception Mercury which is a liquid ) .
The division of elements into metals and non-metals is not very sharp are there are certain elements which exhibit some characteristic properties of both metals and non-metals , such elements are called
'' .
Antimony , arsenic and bismuth are metalloids .
Classification of Ores
The important ores are classified as given below

a .

Oxides , e.g., aluminum as bauxite and iron as magnetite and hematite
b .
Sulphides , e.g., copper as copper pyrites , iron as iron pyrites , lead as galena and zinc blend .
c .
Halides , e.g., sodium as common salt and magnesium as carnallite
d .
Carbonates , e.g., magnesium as magnesite , calcium as limestone , copper as malachite and zinc as calamine .
e .

Sulphates , e.g., Calcium as gypsum , magnesium as epsom salt and lead as anglesite
f .
Phosphates e.g., Calcium as rock phosphate .
g .
Silicate , e.g., aluminum as china clay
Metal Plated on Purpose
Cadmium Iron Rust proofing
Chromium Brass To obtain unscratchable and untranishable coating for
car parts and domestic fittings .
Copper Iron As a foundation for nickel , silver or gold plating .
Gold Brass Imitation Jewellery
Nickel Iron Coating for cycle parts .
Platinum Brass Coating for scientific instruments .
Rhodium Brass , Silver Imitation of silver
Silver Brass , Copper Table utensils
Zinc Iron Rust proofing
Some Soaps and Their Uses
Salts of fatty acid Uses
k Salt Toilet - soap
Na salt Laundry soap
Ca , Al Waterproof texture
Mg Face-powder
Li Salt Greases
Triethanol ammonium Dry Cleaning and
Salt cosmetics
: An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or a metal with a non-metal , the properties of an alloy are not necessarily intermediate between those of its constituents .
Relative Sweetness of Sugar
Sugar Relative sweetness
Scrose 100
Glucose 74
frauctose 173
Galactose 32
Maltose 32
Lactose 16
Name of Instrument Use
Altimeter Measures altitudes ( used in aircraft )
Ammeter Measures strength of electric current
Anemometer Measures force and velocity of wind and determines its direction
Audiometer Measures intensity of sound
Barograph Measures atmospheric pressure
Binoculars To view distant objects
Bolometer To measures heat radiation
Calipers Measures inner and outer diameters of bodies
Calorimeter Measures quantities of heat
Gas Gas
Name of Instrument Use
Cardiogram - Traces movements of the heart ;
( ECG ) - Recorded on a Cardiograph .
- determines , heights , measurement of levels , etc in scientific experiments .
Chronometer - Determines longitude of a vessel at sea
Colorimeter - Compares intensity of colours
- To change / reverse the direction of electric current ; also used to convert
AC into Dc
- A type of the thermometer used to measure very low temperatures ,
usually close to 0 C
- A charged particle accelerator which can accelerate charged particles to
high energies
Dynamometer - Measures electrical power
Dynamo - To convert mechanical energy into electrical energy
Dilatometer - Measures changes in volume of substances
Electroencep - Records and interprets the electrical
Halograph ( EEC )
- Waves of the brain ( brain waves ) recorded on electroencephalograms
Electrometer - Measures very small but potential difference in electric currents .
Electroscope - Detects presence of an electric charge
Electron - To obtain a magnifying view of very
microscope - small objects , capable of magnifying upto 20,000times
Endoscope - To examine internal parts of the body
Fathometer - Measures depth of the ocean
Fluxmeter - Measures magnetic flux
Galvanometer - Measures electric current
Hydrometer - Measures the relative density of liquids
Hygrometer - Measures level of humidity
Hydrophone - Measures sound under water
Hygroscope - Shows the change in atmoshperic humidity
Hypsometer - To determine boiling point of liquids
Kymograph - Graphically records physiological movement ( e.g., blood pressure /
Lactometer - Measures the relatives density of milk to determine purity .
Machmeter - Determines the speed of an aircraft in terms of the speed of sound
Magnetometer - Compares magnetic movements and fields .
Manometer - Measures the pressure of gases
Micrometer - converts sound waves into electrical vibrations
Microphone - Measures distances / angels
Microscope - To obtain a magnified view of small objects
Nephetometer - Measures the scattering of light by particles suspended in a liquid
Ohmmeter - To measures electrical resistance in ohms
Ondometer - Measures the frequency of electromagnetic waves especially in the radio -
frequency band

Periscope - To view objects above sea level ( used in submarines )
Photometer - compares the luminous intensity of the source of light
- Instrument that simultaneously records changes in physiological processes such as
heart beat , blood -pressure and respiration ; used as a lie detector .
Pyknometer - Determines the density and coefficient of expansion of liquid s
Pyrheliometer - Measures components of solar radiation
Pyrometer - Measures very high temperature
Quadrant - Measures altitudes and angels in navigation and astronomy
- To detect the direction and range of an approaching aeroplane by means of radiowaves ,
( Radio , Angle , Detection and Range )
micrometer - Measures heat radiation
Refractometer - Measures refractive indices
Salinometer - determines salinity of solutions
Used by navigators to find the latitude of a place by measuring the
elevation above the horizon of the sun or another star ; also d to measure the height of very distance objects

Spectroscope - To observe or record spectra
spectrometer - Spectroscope equipped with calibrated scale to measure the position of spectral lines
( Measurement of refractive indices ) .
Spherometer - Measures curvature of spherical objects
Sphygmoman - Measures blood pressure
Stereoscope - To view two-dimensional pictures
Stethoscope - Used by doctors to hear and analyze heart and lung sounds .
Stroboscope - To view rapidly moving objects
Tachometer - To determine speed , especially the rotational speed of a shaft
( used in aeroplanes and motor-boat

Tacheometer - A theodolite adapted to measure distances , elevations and bearings
during survey

Tangent galvanometer - Measures the strength of direct current
Telemeter - Records physical happenings at a distant place .
Teleprinter - Receives and sends typed messages from one place to another
Telescope - To view distant object in space
Thermometer - Temperature is measured by determining the electrical resistance of a
coil of thin wire
Theodolite - Measures horizontal and vertical
Thermostat - regulates the temperature to a particular point
Tonometer - To measure the pitch of a sound
Transponder - To receive a signal and transmit a reply immediately .
Udometer - Ran gauge
Ultrasonoscope - To measure and use ultrasonic sound ( beyond hearing ) ; use to make a
Ecogram to detect brain tumours , heart defects and abnormal growth
Venturimeter - To measure the rate of flow of liquids
Vernier - Measures small sub-division of scale
Viscometer - Measures the viscosity of liquid
Voltmeter - To measure electric potential difference between two pints
Wattmeter - To measure the power of an electric circuit
Wavemeter - To measure the wavelength of a radiowave
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