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Internal Text Structure

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Tesia Shafer

on 23 March 2015

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Transcript of Internal Text Structure

What is Internal Text Structure?
Internal text structure refers to the pattern an author uses to present his or her ideas
within
the text

Confused? Well think about it this way:

A "structure" is a building or framework. Builders can use different kinds of structures to build different things.

Text Structure refers to how a piece of text is
built

Writers use different structures to build their ideas
Each text structure communicates ideas in a different way
Internal Text Structure
Chronological, Sequential &
Process Ordering

Compare
&
Contrast

Cause
&
Effect

Listing
&
Enumeration

Chronological/Sequential/Process Order
Authors use the chronological, sequential, and process structure to present information in an ordered format

Chronological/sequential refers to time, date, and order of facts, events or concepts

process ordering refers to a step-by-step procedure (think recipes or experiments)
Step 3: Cook until hot and serve
Compare and Contrast
Before I left for the airport for my trip to India, I made sure to check that my passport was in my purse. Then I got in my car and drove to the airport to meet my plane. After I arrived at the airport, I checked my luggage and headed off to wait for boarding. Finally, I was able to board the plane and begin my journey to India.


What words tell you that this passage is organized using the chronological/sequential structure?
Writers use this type of internal text structure when they seek to explain how two things are similar and different

Cause and Effect
Writers use this type of text structure to show the cause or causes of an outcome OR to show the effect(s) of an event.

That's a bit tricky to wrap your head around. So think of it like this:

Essentially, this text structure seeks to explain how one event leads to another...

Cause
is a reason why something happens
Effect
is what happens as a result.
Listing or Enumeration
This type of text structure is used when a writer is listing connected information or placing ideas in a hierarchy or order based on rank.

enumeration-- often appears as numbered lists
listing--often appears as bulleted lists
Making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich is easy. First, take out two pieces of bread. Secondly, uncap the jelly jar, and uncap the peanut butter jar. Using a butter knife, dip it into the peanut butter jar, remove it, and spread it on one slice of the bread. Next, dip the knife in the jelly jar, remove it, and spread it on the other piece of bread. Finally, place the two slices of bread together and enjoy!

What words or phrases let the reader know that this passage uses process ordering?
What makes it different from chronological ordering?


Process Ordering Example
Chronological / Sequential Ordering Example
We often hear the phrase compare and contrast.

But what do each of those terms really mean?

Compare: how things are similar

Contrast: how things are different
The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two birds with many things in common. Both have crests on their heads. Both are often seen at bird feeders. But there are some differences. Unlike the male cardinal, who is bright red, the waxwing is brown. The cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place. The cardinal, on the other hand, stays in one place year after year.
Compare & Contrast--Another Example
Compare and Contrast Example
Compare & Contrast--Another Example
Lightning and thunder are related events, yet they are two separate phenomena. Lightning is a sudden, violent flash of electricity that occurs between a cloud and the ground. A lightning bolt is very hot, with an average temperature of 34,000 degrees Celsius. This causes the air around the electric bolt to expand, producing lots of sound energy. The actual sound that we hear is known as thunder. So, lightning and thunder are both great sources of energy. However, while lightning is light energy, thunder is sound energy. That is why we
see
lightning, but
hear
thunder.



Concept
&
Definition

Concept and Definition

Gives an explanation or a definition of a concept.


Signal Words
such as
for example
that is
an example
an illustration
characteristics
Concept / Definition Example
Global warming is a looming threat to the world. Just what is it? Scientists agree that global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation.

What is the concept?
What is the definition of the concept?
Concept / Definition Example
The Capybara, which is a semi-aquatic rodent of South America, weighs about a hundred pounds, and is about two feet tall at the shoulder.

What is the concept?
What is the definition of the concept?
Chronological or Sequential? You Decide.
Text Structure--The Basics
Remember, the term "text structure" refers to the way an author decides to organize his or her piece of writing.

We've already learned about external text structure--the tools a writer uses to arrange the text on the page.

Today, we're interested in
internal
text structure--how they organize the information itself.

The night’s snowstorm had many effects. People were out shoveling snow from their sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice. Snow plows drove down every street. Children were the happiest of all. The unexpected snow led to school being canceled!

What were the effects (outcomes)?
What caused those outcomes?
Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that keeps their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures.
In recent decades, cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. There are several reasons for this occurrence. First, the increasing industrialization of the nineteenth century resulted in the creation of many factory jobs, which tended to be located in cities. These jobs, with their promise of a better material life, attracted many people from rural areas. Second, there were many schools established to educate the children of the new factory laborers. The promise of a better education persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move to the cities. Finally, as the cities grew, people established places of leisure, entertainment, and culture, such as sports stadiums, theaters, and museums. For many people, these facilities made city life appear more interesting than life on the farm, and therefore drew them away from rural communities.
Generalization
&
Example

Signal Words

today
meanwhile
next
first
then
not long ago
finally
In the summer of 1964, farmers in Iceland starting noticing a strange odor--the air seemed to smell of rotten eggs! Later that same year, a fisherman spotted a huge pillar of black smoke that seemed to be coming from the ocean nearby. In April 1964, the underwater volcano erupted with such force that the ash and smoke cloud rose over two miles into the sky!

What kind of internal text structure is this?
How do you know?
Another Concept / Definition Example
Figurative language is an integral part of creative writing. It covers a variety of elements, including simile, metaphor, and imagery. Writers use figurative language to add creativity to their writing.

What is the concept being described here?
What is the definition of the concept?
Compare & Contrast--A Bit More Information
Signal Words

both
even though
similar
yet
unlike
instead
on the other hand
although
A yurt is a circular tent-like home that was often used by the nomadic people of Mongolia. Yurts are easy to take down a put up. In fact, once the yurt is fully collapsed, it only takes one animal to carry it to the next place. This is perfect for people who need to move quickly from one place to the next. Unlike the yurt, an adobe house does not move. It is permanent and is meant to stay in one place. An adobe house is built using bricks and made of clay, water, and straw. A yurt, on the other hand, is built using wooded poles and canvas material. Adobe buildings are perfect for people who live in hot climates. The adobe bricks help the home to stay cool when it is hot. In contrast, a yurt is great for both cold and warm weather.
A yurt is a circular tent-like home that was often used by the nomadic people of Mongolia. Yurts are easy to take down a put up. In fact, once the yurt is fully collapsed, it only takes one animal to carry it to the next place. This is perfect for people who need to move quickly from one place to the next. Unlike the yurt, an adobe house does not move. It is permanent and is meant to stay in one place. An adobe house is built using bricks and made of clay, water, and straw. A yurt, on the other hand, is built using wooded poles and canvas material. Adobe buildings are perfect for people who live in hot climates. The adobe bricks help the home to stay cool when it is hot. In contrast, a yurt is great for both cold and warm weather.
_______________________________________________________________________
Compare & Contrast: Yurt Versus Adobe
Compare--how are they alike?
Contrast--how are they different?
The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two birds with many things in common. Both have crests on their heads. Both are often seen at bird feeders. But there are some differences. Unlike the male cardinal, who is bright red, the waxwing is brown. The cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place. The cardinal, on the other hand, stays in one place year after year.
_____________________________________________________
Compare & Contrast: Cardinal v. Cedar Waxwing
Compare--how are they alike?
Contrast--how are they different?
Compare & Contrast: Lightning Versus Thunder
Lightning and thunder are related events, yet they are two separate phenomena. Lightning is a sudden, violent flash of electricity that occurs between a cloud and the ground. A lightning bolt is very hot, with an average temperature of 34,000 degrees Celsius. This causes the air around the electric bolt to expand, producing lots of sound energy. The actual sound that we hear is known as thunder. So, lightning and thunder are both great sources of energy. However, while lightning is light energy, thunder is sound energy. That is why we
see
lightning, but
hear
thunder.
Compare--how are they alike?
Compare--how are they different?
Signal Words

because
since
due to
therefore
so
as a result
consequently
Cause & Effect--An Example
Yesterday, Bob was carelessly jumping up on a windowsill on his back porch. As a result of his carelessness, his arm went through the window and he was cut. Bob had to get about ten stitches.
What was the effect (outcome)?
What was the cause of the effect?
Cause & Effect--An Example
What is the effect (outcome)?
What is the cause?
Cause & Effect--Another Example
Listing or Enumeration
By early 1803 Lewis was in Philadelphia. He took crash courses in medicine, in botany, and in celestial observation. He studied maps and journals of traders and trappers who had already reached as far up the Missouri River as the Mandan villages in North Dakota. By the time he left Washington, he knew as much about the West, and what to do when he got there, as any many in America.

What is being listed here?
Not really signal words, but there are some things you can look for.

bulleted lists
numbered lists
a series of listed objects separated by commas


More on Listing or Enumeration
What's the difference between listing/enumeration and chronological order?

Honestly, not a lot. Listing/enumeration does not require any sort of special ordering, while the others do. We could make it more complicated that that, but guess what? We're not going to.
Listing or Enumeration--An Example
When I awoke in the morning, there were several chores I was in charge of completing. I had to wash clothing, do the dishes, walk the dog, dust the den, and clean the shower.


What's being listed here?


Generalization and Example
Writers use this structure when they provide a general statement or idea that is then supported by one or more examples.
Signal Words
for example
such as
for instance
to illustrate
Generalization & Example Example
Food labels provide important information. For example, a person with a peanut allergy should check the ingredient list on the label to make sure the food doesn't contain peanut products.
______________________________________________


What general statement is made?

What is the example / evidence used to support that statement?
Generalization & Example--Another Example
Men's fashion is less popular than women's fashion. For instance, there are no television shows entitled "Say Yes to the Flannel Shirt." Also, shows"America's Next Top Model" always feature female contestants.
_______________________________________

What general statement is made?
What is the example / evidence used to support that statement?
Full transcript