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Empire Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 - 1566) Suleiman The Magnificent was born on November 6th 1494 at Black sea coast of Turkey. At the age of 26 he became the 10th sultan of the empire in 1520. Know as "Kanuni", the lawgiver in his homeland, but for Europeans he has always been " Suleyman the magnificent." During ruling the Ottoman empire he captured Belgrade in 1521 and Rhodes in 1522, forcing the knights of St. John to leave the Malta, defeating him and killed king Lewis of Hungary. His domain extended far to the eastward and into Egypt and Persia. He also ruled the Ottoman Empire for 46 years and during ruling the empire he doubled his territory, and many valuable buildings were constructed during these time period which they still exist with no damages. Shah Abbas born on January 27, 1571 in Herat, Afghanistan. Shah Abbas, who ruled from 1588-1629 brought the Safavid empire to the highest point of glory. He moved the capital from Qazvin to he more central and more Persian Isfahan with new mosques, baths, colleges. Becoming one of the most beautiful cities in the world. He took advantages of Tsar Ivan death to gained the territory of the province on the southern Caspian sea. Because of the victory of the Basra, he extended his empire beyond the Euphrates. His dominions extended from the Tigris to the Indus, overcoming the Persian borders of pre- Islam times. Shas Abbas (1588-1629) Shah Jahan (1628-1658) Shah Jahan ruled using the political system that the earlier Mughal rules started being the fifth mughal ruler of India. He expanded the boundaries of the Mughal empire by campaigns and through the Deccan Plateau. The empire enjoyed peace and prosperity, it was even said to be the golden age of Mughal architecture, Shah Jahan is most remembered for the construction of the world famous monument. These three empires were also known as the Gunpowder Empires 1. Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal emperor built the Taj Mahal in 1631 in memory of Mumtaz Mahal. his favorite wife who died shortly after giving birth. It is a monument of love that took 22 years to build. It contains the tombs of Akhar and Shah Jahan’s wife. However, the Europeans tried to claim the Taj Mahal as their own by burying their minister in the grave and said that he has been there before anyone else. Some European scholars believed that an Italian designer by the name of Geronimo Veroneo made it but their isn’t any evidence to prove it. Hindu nationalists have tried to claim it as a Hindu design because a myth stated that it was actually a temple palace dedicated to Lord Shiva. It was built before the Mughals came to India. Before the Mughals named it the Taj Mahal it was named Tejo Mahalya. Shahal Jahan is known to have stolen goods from there and built the Taj Mahal. It is said that every Muslim structure was stolen by the Mughal rulers and converted into Muslim structures after some modifications. The government of India does not support those allegations however, there are some hardcore evidence to support those allegations.
2. Some early experiences that shaped Akbar’s attitude towards religion were his interest in religious and philosophical matters. He was influenced by Sufi mysticism that was being preached in his country at the time causing him to move away from orthodoxy and come up with liberal ideas. He built Ibadat Khana. Also called the “House of worship.” During the early years of his reign, he had an intolerant attitude towards Hindus and other religions, but he began to have great tolerance after he began marriage alliances with Rajput princesses. Some experiences that led to the development of Din-i-llahi was the fact that Akbar because his interactions between various religious theologians had convinced him that each religions had several good practices which he wanted to combine into a religious movement. He practiced tolerance between Hindus and Muslims, which helped him, promote the tolerance of other faiths.
3. Aurangzeb’s religious policies, his intolerance for rival polities on the subcontinent, and his expensive military campaigns eroded the foundations of empire laid by Akbhar without providing a new basis for its administration because his religious policies were a reason his empire began to disenegrate. He kept his rivals at the bay and had to deal with the Rajputs. His military campaigns were used to extend frontiers of the Mughal empire which he inherited. The long military campaigns required him to keep peasantry heavily taxed.
4. The East India Stock Dividend Act brought the British East India Company on the verge of bankruptcy and led to government intervention in its affairs. British rule had an impact on Bengali culture by introducing English as higher education. They controlled the provinces of the Carnatic and Bengal. Indirect rule is a doctrine that imperial rulers exercised control over the population through indigenous institutions. The doctrine of Lapse is a British policy in India that stated if a ruler did not produce a biological male son, the company would take control of his territories. The policy od annexing Princely states resulted in rebellion which brought the end of the British East India Company.
5. The chief elements of Ottoman rule was defined by its ruler, military, and faith (Islam) all acting together. The dynastic principle states that the land is land that has been conquered or passed down in the family. They adopted different elements of societies they conquered. The military principle stated that its armies were tightly organized and under control. Europeans were divided among themselves, even at war. Turkish armies were constantly reinforced by new waves of “ghazi” warriors from Central Asia. Ottoman rule was not unattractive to the mass of its conquered Christian and Jewish subjects. The Islamic principle states that the sultan was known as the God’s agent. The state had three purposes, to preserve and expand Islam, to defend and expand the ruler’s power, and provide justice and security for the sultan’s subjects. These three elements worked together by the sultan being at the top of the pyramid, his direct instruments, this included Muslims and non-Muslims. The Jewish and Christians were entitled to be protected but they did not have the right to join the military or the sultan’s immediate ruling circle. If they chose to convert to Islam and had talent they could wield great power. The devshirme was a way the military used to strengthen the state for more success. These chief elements of Ottoman rule lead to his downfall because people wanted freedom of religion 6. Even at a young age, Suleiman managed to rule over the Ottoman Empire. Suleiman strengthened his military. He had hundreds of cannons constructed and expanded his army of janissaries, elite Turkish warriors, by several thousand. During his forty-six year reign he managed to conquer large parts of Hungary, Austria, and nearly Rome. He worked hard to conquer and get land as much as he could. He had many mosques built due to his loyalty to Islam. He also made schools, city walls, and an aqueduct that surpassed any built in Rome. Suleiman’s great leadership started with the kindness towards his people by performing many acts of kindness and mercy including freeing hundreds of slaves, bestowing his officers with gifts, and erecting a school for slaves. He led with conviction. After the death of Suleiman, Roxelana’s son, Selim became the next sultan. Unfortunately, Suleiman did not raise his son well, nor taught him the duties of a sultan. In the end, Selim was un able to participate in political affairs. The succeeding sultans were no better which eventually led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire.7. Roxelanas’s influence over the Sultan was legendary. She gave Suleiman five children. She engaged in several major works of public buildings, from Mecca to Jerusalem. When the European visitor came she made rumors to make her husband believe that he wanted to take over the empire, which shows how great her influence was over her husband.8. Many observers believed that the quality of the Janissary corps declined in the late sixteenth century when the sons of Janissaries, and non-Muslims were permitted to join, and the corps' slave discipline was compromised. By the 17th century Janissaries had much good prestige and influence, which led them to dominate the government. They could dictate policy and prevent efforts to modernize the army structure. They eventually became landholders and tradesmen. 9. Lady Montague’s opinion to the ottoman’s empire medical preparation is impressed especially because she wants to spare her children of small pox. When she was excitedly about to promote the procedure she encountered a great deal of resistance from the western medical establishment, because it was an "Oriental" process.10. On Ismail’s conquest campaign he captured Tabriz in July 1501. Then he enthroned himself the Shah of Azerbaijan, and names himself Shahanshah of Iran. He also proclaimed Shi’ism the official religion of his domain. Abbas got to Persia as the zenith of power politically, economically, and culturally. Safavid Persia goes into decline due to military threats against them and the Baloch tribes repeatedly raided them in 1698. The Taj Mahal The Grand Blue Mosque