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Social Cognitive Theory Application Project
Transcript of Social Cognitive Theory Application Project
Applications of Social Cognitive Theories
In this presentation you will be introduced to the basics of Social Cognitive Theories of Learning. The following topics will be addressed:
How Social Cognitive Theory is defined
Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory
Strengths and Weaknesses of Social Cognitive Theory
How the Theory's principles may be observed in a classroom setting
How this classroom lesson might be adjusted to more closely align with Social Cognitive Theory.
People learn from observing others (Ormrod, 2011)
People control their own learning (Ormrod, 2011)
People, behavior, and environment mutually influence each other (Reciprocal Causation) (Ormrod, 2011)
Motivation is a significant factor in learning (Ormrod, 2011)
Strengths and Weaknesses
Teachers who develop their lessons in accordance to the principles of Social Cognitive Theories benefit from the inclusion of environmental, behavioral, and personal factors in their practice. This provides an advantage over other theories that might excessively focus on one of these elements and neglect others. It must be understood however, that the importance of either one of these elements might vary between different classrooms and amongst different students, and it is the duty of the teacher to deliver lessons that comprehensively use these different elements in a way that will best promote learning with the specific student group they are working with.
Learning by observation:
Assumption that changes in environment will always lead to changes in the person when this is not always true (Boston University School of Public Health).
The interaction and importance of the three factors (person, behavior, environment) is not clearly established (Boston University School of Public Health).
Theory fails to account for biological differences such as teenage hormones that likely affect behaviors (Boston University School of Public Health).
Theory only focuses on motivation as related to past experience (Boston University School of Public Health).
This theory is so general that it is difficult to effectively apply to classroom practices (Boston Universoty School of Public Health).
Lesson Objective: Students will be able to infer present day significance from a reading about the invention of Gutenberg’s printing press.
4th Grade, Canoga Park
In this video, a fourth grade social studies class discuss the implications on their daily lives of the invention of the printing press (4th Grade, Canoga Park, n.d.).
During the class discussion, instead of taking notes on his own paper, the teacher could take notes on the board or on a computer connected to a projector screen. This way he will be modelling a behavior that will be useful for students to adopt in their future educational experiences as well as showing more concretely that he is actively listening to the students as they should be listening to each other.
Social Cognitive Theory is the theoretical perspective that centers on how people learn by observing others and how this will eventually allow people to assume control of their own behaviors (Ormrod, 2011).
Before students are asked to participate in group discussions they are each asked to read, form their own ideas and then discuss with a partner. During the discussion, students are encouraged to build on each other’s ideas, either agreeing or disagreeing. Many students repeat or paraphrase the ideas of classmates with very little disagreement arising.
Reciprocal causation describes how the relationship between the environment, behavior and the person interact influence each other and affect learning (Ormrod, 2011).
Classroom rules are posted and focus on pro-social behaviors (ex. share ideas and materials).
The students exhibit very supportive behaviors toward their classmates during the discussion, always reporting, “I agree with **…” rather than disagreeing, arguing or teasing each other.
At the end of the lesson, the teacher should recap for the students the ideas that they themselves discussed by writing a brief (bulleted) summary on the board and if there is sufficient time, having the students copy that into their notebooks. This will provide a record of what the students accomplished during the lesson as well as helping to facilitate successful completion of the assessment and promoting a sense of self-efficacy because the ideas came from their own discussion.
During the discussion, the teacher is an example of a live model (real people whom we observe doing things). He is seen actively listening and taking notes. By taking notes, he is able to:
Remember what the students said
Redirect the discussion when it is getting too repetitious or off track and pose guiding questions (Why is it important for us to communicate easier?)
Debrief the lesson
Give praise and feedback specifically
The teacher is modelling what the students should or could be doing as they participate in the class.
The students use their own past experience to support their argument of the importance of the printing press.
The students are seen engaging in self-regualted behavior when they are engaging in productive conversations with thier partners without much distraction. They understand their objective of developing an argument for the importance of the printing press, and are able to continue that conversation with the class as a whole,
Reciprocal Causation, the cross interaction of environmental, behavioral, and personal variables, allows for a more encompassing theory of learning than other theories present (Ormrod, 2011).
1. How do you feel about today’s discussion?
2. How do you feel about your contributions to the discussion?
3. What did you learn about the topic?
4. Do you have anything else to add that you didn’t get to share in class?
These questions should allow students to reflect both about the content of the lesson as well as their own progress and participation in classroom events promoting self-regulation skills (Ormrod, 2011).
Also, by reviewing individual contribitions to the class discussion each student may realize that he or she has good ideas to share, thereby building on their positive self-efficacy (Ormrod, 2011). By allowing the teacher to hear the student's own thoughts on their accomplishments he or she will also be able to judge which students have unrealistically high or low self-efficacy and work correct it (Ormrod, 2011).
During the class discussion, the teacher frequently stops to recap students’ responses and models making connections between these responses. By modelling this behavior, the teacher helps the students see how the each student's contribution to the class discussion can deepen their understanding of the importance of the printing press.
Self-regulation is the process of setting goals for oneself and engaging in the beahviors and cognitive processes that help attain those goals (Ormrod, 2011).
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners 7th Edition (Book Only) by Jeanne E. Ormrod Link: http://amzn.com/B00851C7S4
Boston University. http://sph.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/SB/SB721-Models/SB721-Models5.html
Bandura Video: http: //www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMBlwjEoyj4
4th Grade, Canoga Park video: https://www.2sc.usc.edu/mod/assignment/view.php?id=38872