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Sami Bichir

on 10 October 2018

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Transcript of Evolution

Evidence for Evolution
3. DNA (genetic material)
BSCS pg 19
1. Fossil Record
Fossils - the remains or evidence of any creature or plant that once lived on the Earth. Similar fossils over millions of years show there must have been a
2. Embryo
Embryos: An unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of development.
Similar Embryos show that they must have had a common ancestor.

4. Homologous Structures
Homologous Structure: a body part that is similar in structure and position in two or more species; evolution explains this correspondence by common ancestry
The principle that guides all life, as a group, to continue to change and survive on our ever changing planet.
Relative Dating
Absolute Dating
Most of the time, older = deeper
How do we tell how old
Carbon-14 Dating
Half-Life = amount of time it takes for
half of the isotope to break down.
1) How much time has passed if 50% of the carbon-14 has decayed?
2) What percent of carbon-14 is left after 11,460 years?
Fossils show that organisms tend to get bigger as time progresses.
Sponge: What is the definition of evolution?

Sponge Answer= evolution - change over time
Charles Darwin came up with this theory
Sponge: What was the first piece of evolutionary evidence? How does it prove evolution?
Learning Target: We will learn about embryo development among living organisms.

Closing Task: I can explain how the development of embryos is evidence for evolution.
Fossil Record: It shows evolution occurs because organisms with similar fossils must have had a common ancestor.
DNA: short for deoxyribonucleic acid, the building block of life that provides the hereditary material that is a blueprint for all living organisms. Similar DNA shows that organisms must have had a common ancestor.

1. Chained together to Make DNA
2. Made of phosphate group, sugar backbone, and a nitrogenous base.
3. Four nitrogenous base pairs make exist in DNA.
- Adenine (A)
- Guanine (G)
- Thymine (T)
- Cytosine (C)

Human DNA and Primate DNA are
almost identical which means.....
They must share a

Orangutans are very intelligent. They have been known to use leaves as umbrellas, in rainy season, as well as cups, to help them drink water.
DNA 97% the same as humans
Live in family groups and take
care of their young.
DNA is 98.5% the same as humans
Use tools to hunt and can solve complex problems.
DNA 99% the same as Humans.
Sponge: What are the 2 pieces of evolutionary evidence we have learned? What was the oldest life form and how long ago did life originate?
Learning Target: I can explain how DNA links humans and primates to their common ancestors.

Closing Task: How does DNA serve as evidence for theory of evolution?
1. Fossils and Embryos
2. Bacteria 3.5 billion years ago
Give an example of a:
Homologous structures
Vestigial Structures
Analogous Structures

(Try not to use examples we have already used)

Exit Slip

Structures of different species having similar or corresponding function but not from the same evolutionary origin.

Analogous Structures

- functionless structures that were functioning in an ancestral species. Evolved to not need the structure anymore.

Vestigial Structures

Sponge: What are the 3 pieces of evolution evidence so far? What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?
Learning Target: I can explain how physical structures of organisms show an evolutionary relationship.
1) Fossils, Embryos, DNA
2) sugar backbone, phosphate group, nitrogenous base (A,T,C,G)
Homologous Structures
Fossil Record

Homologous structures - similar anatomy
Analogous structures - same function but DIFFERENT anatomy

Sponge Answer

Sponge: What are the four pieces of evolutionary evidence?
What is the difference between homologous and analogous structures?

Learning Target: I will analyze Natural Selection.


Write down 5 Facts about evolution that you learned.

How did giraffes evolve to have long necks?

Bill Nye Evolution Video

Flu Virus (Influenza)
Why is it recommended to get a flu shot every year?

Natural Selection Examples

Darwin’s Finches of the Galapagos Islands

Natural Selection Examples

Because all organisms struggle to survive:

Variation exists among members of a population
Many more individuals are produced each generation than will survive
Some individuals are better adapted so they survive and reproduce
Members of a population compete for food, space, mates, etc.

Darwin’s Evolution Theory

Individuals with characteristics that are not well suited to their environment (that is, with low levels of fitness) either die or leave few offspring.
Individuals that are better suited to their environment (that is, with high levels of fitness) survive and reproduce most successfully.

Natural Selection

Natural Selection – Survival of the Fittest!!!

Adaptation – inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chance of survival

Fitness – Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment.

Variation – Differences in a species

Extinction – Death of entire species (adaptations are no longer suitable to a changed environment)

Evolution Terms:

Pepper Moths (England)

Natural Selection Examples

Selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms.
Dog breeds
Vegetables (tomatoes)

Artificial Selection

Came up with the theory of evolution by
natural selection. (known as father of evolution)

“Origin of Species”

Charles Darwin

Learning Target: We will study fossil evidence to see how it supports the theory of evolution.

Closing Task: How does the fossil record support the theory of evolution?

Today: BSCS pg 36 and Lucy
Full transcript