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Transcript of Teaching Approaches
Jheraczelle Mae D. Barril
He should help students gather sufficient data to enable them form the expected generalization.
Jheraczelle Mae D. Barril
He should be able to master the cognitive hierarchy of his discipline.
They can make use of the insights gained in certain problematic situations. They are enabled to generalize new but related real-life situations. They become more efficient in solving problems they encounter.
Specific Approaches in Teaching
Consider the strategy of each of the following teachers:
At the beginning of the day's lesson, he states the expected outcome of activity or the learning experience. He usually starts the lesson by what the whole lesson is all about, what it is leading to.
He asks the class to answer a series of questions. Every time the students cannot give the correct answer, he gives the answer himself. Afterwards he just tells some students to repeat it.
More often than not, he inquires similar questions like "Class, did you not notice in our lesson that the common pattern is...? Again, class what pattern did you see?"
These ways of teaching are the sort that deprive the learners the opportunity to achieve some learning result.
What students need is to be challenged!
They must be actively involved in the class activity with the feeling that they have a great stake in their own learning.
As a result, they gain confidence, become responsible and reliant, and most of all, they can attain self-realization
meaning of the Discovery Approach
Several authorities give the following definitions of this approach
1. Discovery approach stresses the learning concepts, theories, principles, and content through discovery rather than rote memorization (Anderson, 1969).
2. It is not only the act of finding out something unknown before mankind but also includes all forms of obtaining knowledge for oneself by the use of one's own mind (Rowe, 1973)
3. It is the act of an individual using his mental processes (cognitive abilities) to derive a concept or principle. A discovery activity is a lesson designed to help students discover concepts or principles for themselves. It is a matter of rearranging data internally so new concepts are formed. It involves finding the meanings, the organization, the structure of the ideas (Carin and Sund, 1971).
4. It incorporates those views of teaching which place greatest emphasis on the self-directed activity of the student. It incorporates some of the present-day concern for creativity, child development, and the terminology of cognitive psychology (Myron and Karplus, 1962)
5. Its main emphasis is on the teacher not telling the students the principle or generalization or rule which they are supposed to learn (Ausubel, 1961)
6. It is a matter of rearranging or transferring evidence. It is a type of thinking. This type of thinking occurs in such a way that the individual discoverer goes beyond the information given to new insights and generalizations (Bruner, 1965).
7. It is a process in which the student, led by the "momentum" of the information which has been presented to him, males correct inferences (Gagne, 1965)
8. It involves the sudden assimilation of perceived data into the existing framework of the conceptual system (suchman, 1964).
9. It means that after selecting a body pf subject matter to be learned, the exposition and exercises are so designated that the learner will discover for himself principles and rules (Guthrie, 1967)
10. It allows the student to become "active" in the learning process. He must engage in doing, manipulating materials, and interpreting results. As a result, he discovers something (Hendrix, 1961)
NATURE OF THE DISCOVERY APPROACH
This approach pertains basically to cognitive aspect of learning; the development and organization of concepts, ideas and insights, and the use of reference and other logical processes to control a situation.
It is inductive (from specific to general). It helps the learner get at the structure, or at the laws and principles of a subject, by allowing him to discover these laws and principles of a subject through intensive exploration of correct instances.
Freedom is necessary in this approach. Without it, how can the students work and discover knowledge for themselves in a classroom atmosphere where everything is dictated and controlled that they appear like robots?Hence, there must be free interchange of ideas in the classroom.
Striving to teach the learner, the teacher helps him acquire knowledge which is uniquely his own because he discovers it for himself.
Centering around a series of problem-solving situations, the discovery approach, therefore, calls for the active student involvement. It is student-centered as well as self-directed learning.
Roles of the Teacher in the Discovery Approach
1. He makes his students realize that he depends on them for the solution of the problem raised in class.
2. He does not pressure his students but he gives them time to formulate the expected generalization.
3. He should be able to guide them with clues when they get clogged in the process of discovery.
4. He should avoid indicating anything about the generalization which is to be formulated by them nor should he share ideas which will shut off the spirit of discovery among his students.
5. The teacher's ingenuity and resourcefulness are helpful in the regard of instructional materials needed for the discovery learning.
Benefits for the learners by Discovery:
This mode of learning gives intrinsic rewards to students since they are conscious that they are the ones who discovered things for themselves.
There is real joy and happiness because they know they have achieved something.
Because of the feeling of success in them, the teacher will easily arouse their interest and involvement in the learning activity.
There is genuine cognitive understanding in students since whatever they generalization arrived at is a product of their own making; whatever relationship between the variables is drawn out is an income of their own analytical and comparative investigation.
Knowledge becomes better processed, more thoroughly assimilated and absorbed.
Bruner, one of the most influential exponents of learning by discovery, summarized the benefits students may get from this kind of learning as:
1. The increase in intellectual potency
Learning is geared to the development of high mental processes like analysis, synthesis and judgment.
2. The shift from the extrinsic to intrinsic rewards
If the learner knows that he can find out things for himself, he feels that he can achieve something and can experience some amount of success. Success may drive him to greater achievemen. He will eventually experiene real joy and self-satisfaction.
3. The learning of the heuristics of discovering
Learning by discovery engages the student to learn how to learn. In finding out things for himself, he
to develop and
learning skills. If
he does not
possess such skills,
he may not
certainly be capable
4. The aid to conserving memory
If one discovers knowledge by himself, he will most likely not forget it since learning by discovery involves an internalization of knowledge. If he does not internalize knowledge, he ends up forgetting it which usually occurs when his teacher spoon-feeds him.
Clarifying learning by Disco
to aptly summarize the discovery approach, certain basic questions must be answered, namely;
1. What is to be discovered?
the end of teaching in a discovery-oriented lesson is the acquisition of knowledge.
While the psychomotor and the affective aspects of learning being served, too, they become only a means to an end
2. Who are to discover knowledge?
The students and not the teacher should be actively involved in the process of discovery.
The teacher should assist them during such process and not to "steal the show" for them.
"The learner not to be told but led to see... whatever he gains, whatever thought connections he works out, must be known with the consciousness that he is, in a sense at least, the discoverer.
3. How is knowledge discovered by students viewed firstly by students themselves and secondly by the teacher?
'Education is what is left in the individual after he has forgotten almost all he learned from school
gives much emphasis on a given subject as an organized body of knowledge.
It is the organization of knowledge that makes it distinct from other kinds of information the worst example of which is
It is choosing and defining the content of a certain discipline to be taught through the use of big or pervasive ideas as against the traditional practice of determining content by isolated topics.
The emphasis is not the content
, but in the big ideas that pervade the subject.
It is using the content as a means of leading the students to discover the laws and principles or generalizations that govern a particular subject or discipline.
Nature of the Conceptual Approach
It is more of a view point of how facts and topics under discipline should be dealt with
Information-processing becomes interestingly effective as the learners are guided toward organization of thoughts into meaningful, bigger ideas.
Stresses the cognitive learning: the learning of content or acquisition of knowledge. However, the conceptual approach requires the categorization of content from simple to complex level while discovery is generally concerned with the conscious effort of the learners to find out mere relationship between two given variables.
It involves more data collection usually through research
Students need no
t go into
act of recalling fa
suffice like asking the students to state certain phenomena that they observe in their everyday living.
He should never tell the students the principle or rule which they are supposed to state at the end of the lesson.
Jheraczelle Mae D. Barril
He should be able to categorize all knowledge pertinent to his area: from facts to concepts; from concepts to generalizations; from generalizations to principles; and all of these should be organized around conceptual schemes which are the pervasive ideas embodying the whole discipline.
Hierarchy of Cognition
Synthesis or constellation of related facts
Ice melts. Water freezes. Wax liquid solidifies. Water vapor condenses. Mothballs sublimate
It is just a simple statement of truth.
Ice, water, wax, water vapor, and mothballs are all
Melting, freezing, solidification, condensation, and sublimation are all
General statement relating two or more concepts
By relating matter with physical change, the general statement may likely be: "All matter undergo physical change."
Statement of fundamental processes, true without exception within the stated limitations, capable of demonstration or illustration.
The principle involved in the physical change of matter is conversation.
The main pervasive them underlying a major field of study
Understanding the environment through matter and energy.
Benefits to the Learners
Certain intellectual processes are being developed like classification, discrimination, synthesis, and judgment. While knowledge is being processed, students have to think logically and holistically.
They could see and realize that bits of information which seem to be isolated can be organized and pieced together like a jigsaw puzzle around a context in the broader fundamental structure of a field of knowledge. They become aware that every time the teacher presents a set of facts, the lesson is to be approached in its totality. Meaning, is drawn out and derived from it.
It is identified with skill-oriented subjects like practical arts and home economics and even with knowledge-laden subjects like social studies
The essence of the process approach lies on the three major points:
Emphasis on the process implies a corresponding de-emphasis on the subject content
It centers upon the idea that what is taught to children should be functional and not theoretical
It introduces the consideration of human intellectual development
It may be defined as teaching in which knowledge is used as a means to develop students' learning skills.
Students are actively engaged in the activities so the competencies needed in the subject could eventually be acquired by them.
Learning Skills in Selected Subjects
I. Social Studies
- observing, describing, developing concepts, differentiating, defining, hypothesizing, comparing and contrasting, generalizing, predicting, explaining, and offering alternatives.
- reading, viewing, listening, outlining, note-taking, caption-writing, diagramming, tabulating, constructing timelines, and asking relevant questions.
- planning with others, participating in research projects, participating productively in group discussion, responding courteously to the questions of others, leading group discussion, acting responsibly, and helping others.
- observing, classifying, using numbers, measuring, using space-time relationship, communicating, predicting, inferring.
- defining operationally, formulating hypotheses, interpreting data, controlling variables, and e
III. Language (English and Filipino
- proper pronunciation and enunciation, good diction, voice modulation, quality, pitch, and timbre, etc.
- concentrating, deciphering ideas, analyzing and interpreting, getting the main thoughts, etc.
- speed and comprehension, reading between the lines, sequencing, comparing and contrasting, drawing out the main idea or the moral lesson, interpreting a selection, generalizing, etc.
- jotting down important notes, outlining, summarizing, mastering the mechanics of writing like spelling, use of punctuation marks, and use of small and capital letters, writing a composition following qualities like good grammar, simplicity, cohesiveness, etc.
- placing numbers in column, mastering the four fundamental processes, finding the least common denominator, changing fractions to decimals and vice versa, etc.
- getting the square root, computing mean, median, and standard deviation, solving one-step problem and two or three-step problems, etc.
V. Physical Education
- developing coordination and vigor, practicing alertness, quickness to respond, poise, and grace, exercising muscular strength, maintaining normal functioning of the organic system of the body, etc.
Organized Games and Relay Skills
- cultivating a general "ball sense" for application in team games, practicing throwing, catching, bouncing, and aiming the ball, participating in lead-up activities that will increase interest and ability to play games, etc.
- mastering some fundamental dance steps, demonstrating skills in various rhythmic skills, etc.
- acquiring good body posture in different positions (sitting, walking, standing, running, kneeling, lying, etc.)
- demonstrating the ability to move from one place to another with the greatest degree of safety and speed, exercising to develop body coordination, agility, and timing, etc.
Constant opportunities should be provided to them until they have acquired in themselves the skill needed. The principle of reinforcement is well applicable to this particular case.
Program the development of certain kills fro simple to complex or from easy to difficult to ensure more success in this particular task. Start developing the basic
skills which will be needed later in the development of complex and integrated skills.
The teacher should be able to spot on the common weaknesses of students that serve as barriers in their skill-formation. More time and concerted efforts should, therefore, be spent for overcoming such weaknesses.
Determine what appropriate topics or subjects that could enhance the skill development of students.
"Teaching a man how to catch a fish is much better than giving him fish every time he needs it."
By developing the students' skills, the teacher is preparing him to be independent, self-sufficient, and productive. This gives substance to education as a process of "preparing one for his own life."
Every learner is equipped with his own capabilities to do something but if they remain untouched and undeveloped, he may be as good as nothing.
The student can easily make others recognize him since he can contribute something to them.
The utilization of skills learned is a concrete proof that the student really learns.
Its emphasis is placed upon aspects of search rather than on the mere acquisition of knowledge (Buell, 1967)
It addresses itself primarily to the business of using concepts and only incidentally to learning concepts, although an end product of any inquiry lessons may be production of a new idea of concept or a new invention (Rowe, 1973).
It is the search for truth, information, or knowledge. It pertains to research and investigation and to seeking for information by asking questions (Klinkmann, 1970)
It is the search for the solution to a problem through an exploration and evaluation of alternatives (Suchman, 1964)
It aims to develop the students' thinking ability and to lead them into the habit of thinking. It is concerned with asking the right kind of questions so that the right things are investigated (De la Cruz and De la Paz, 1974)
It views a given discipline more as an attitude than as a body of knowledge or as a method. Emphasizing the effective aspects of learning, it uses both the content and processes as means toward the development of the qualities of the mind as curiosity, skepticism, intellectual honesty, and the like.
Its primary aim is the development of a desirable attitude including proper appreciation and valuing.
This approach can either be deductive or inductive.
Deductive if the teacher in the beginning provides the students with background information which will serve as the subjects have learned through discovery.
Inductive when through a set of questions presented, the students are able to come up with certain ideas of their own which are open for further investigation.
Role of the teacher
1. Ability to question more and to tell less. In this connection, he must have mastered the art of questioning.
Skill in going beyond the
ognitive level of the
esson to its analytical and
udgmental level, students
hould be led to draw out the humanistic implications and perspectives of the lesson.
3. Acceptance that children should be given a lot of opportunities to discuss, to think, and to evaluate ideas and issues. The teacher is not expected to dominate the class discussion.
The following are the prerequisites to enable the teacher to conduct an inquiry session successfully.
4. Competence and making the process of inquiry keep on going, the teacher must provide the necessary stimulus to get inquiry going. Once the process bogs down, he must be able to bring out fresh and relevant points that will sustain the whole period of inquiry.
5. Readiness to assist the students in theorizing and differentiating between hypothesis and data and in understanding how these two come equally vital in the crystallization of ideas and concepts.
6. According to J. Richard Suchman,
must know what inquiry is, and the conditions under which it can take p
He must have a sound psychologica
understand of what goes on in child
minds. He must understand the epistemology of inquiry - the theory
nature and the validity of its operatio
n - so
as to establish conditions under whi
inquiry -the theory of its nature and
of its operation - so as to establish conditions under which inquiry can develop and then to implement them
The inquiry session should proceed from the very factual to thought-provoking questions - that is from the "what" questions to the "how" and the "why" questions.
h sequence of will provide
ts with more challenges
are asked questions of
The teacher should select phenomena he understands well. This could mean the preparation of well-selected questions for inquiry.
The teacher should vary his question-asking pattern. More opportunities should be provided the students to respond to questions that call for analysis, interpretation, evaluation and judgment.
Utilize questions that provide certain degree of conceptual conflict. Students should be taught how to ask good questions and how to raise questions logically.
Questions containing some supposition could also lead the class to an inquiry.
1. Present a phenomenon that elicits curiosity either because
novelty of because
adiction to certain
Let some students record the questions and statements asked by their classmates and to make explanation and account of the event shown.
3. Questions and statements are reviewed and studied. In this, the teacher should be able to help the students to differentiate between vague and clear questions; between diffused and directed statements; and between factual and thought-provoking questions.
Benefits to the learners
It requires them to go beyond the knowledge and skill levels of learning toward the affective dimensions like their attitudes, values, appreciations, and the like.
Students are not expected to accept the newly-formed generalization right away. They could still subject to further scrutiny. In the process, they are expected to become more analytical and less gullible.
Students are expected to become more as "producers" of knowledge rather than as mere "consumers" of knowledge.
Students may come out with certain new ideas, alternatives, and even solutions to a problem.
Students become more curious and observant individuals.
Students learn that learning has become a personal commitment for every learner.
To make learning more lasting and permanent, the following pointers are suggested:
1. Previous learning should be reinforced. For instance, newly-formed generalization should be properly applied in several situations other than those earlier presented. Likewise, a skill that is initially developed should be further strengthened by continuous drills and exercises. The previous lesson should be reviewed, not simple recalling it but by relating it to the next lesson.
2. Presentation of any topic or subject should be geared to students' vocabulary levels. No matter how theoretical the lesson is, it should be expressed in a simple and comprehensible language.
3. Knowledge learned should be expanded. One way to do it is to cite a lot of relevant examples and concrete situations.
4. School work should be related to students' experiential background. They are not expected to understand the lesson on the basis of abstraction alone. Even among college students, it would be difficult for them to grasp the meaning of a theory or a principle unless it is illustrated using their own experiences.
5. Provide students with a variety of experiences to strengthen their understanding of certain concepts. Such variety assures them a more thorough treatment of the concepts, covering all their important angles.
6. Certain interferences in learning should be reduced; otherwise, students cannot learn even if they are provided with an optimum classroom atmosphere. The teacher should do something to handle skillfully the poor emotional conditions of the learner brought about by anxiety, lack of motivation, personal problems like parental drift, and the like. If these conditions do not improve, the students is more likely not in a position to learn.
A means of treating relationships that exist among the significant components making up a given body of knowledge.
A thorough process of weaving and integrating topics into a general framework or a conceptual scheme.
Its primary aim is to enhance the students' learning by making him view things in their entirety or totality.
1. It is highly cognitive (subject content is viewed as a system of interrelated and interdependent elements)
2. It leads students toward insightful and meaningful learning (learning in this approach requires students to go through different mental processes like comparison, linking up, ascertaining the cause-and-effect relationships, determining prerequisites, predicting results, and even synthesis.)
3. It is holistic in treatment (it is based on the premise that parts are nothing unless they are viewed as one whole).
4. It requires the teacher to present his subject matter in an entirely different manner.
1. He has to re-structure the presentation of his subject to show the needed interrelationships. Most likely in the usual setup, topics are presented fragmentarily. Initially, he should determining the major concepts in his subject matter, determine their relationships, and plan relevant situations and examples to be cited in order to make certain relationships clear and understandable to his students.
2. Recalling the previous lesson and linking it up with the present one becomes a necessity in this approach. Students should be led to see that the subject taught to him is an organized body of knowledge since every aspect of it is an integral element of the whole.
3. He should include relevant points only. Avoid presenting ideas that would not help establish the interrelationship desired. If irrelevant ideas are presented, they should be properly labeled.
4. The ability
to relate is one
kill in so far as
efficient only if
he can see th
ideas, a quali
ty which is not
5. In presenting relationships, start with the most fundamental concepts leading to the responding, consequential In every subject, there is one fundamental unifying concept which could be used as the starting point which will naturally bring students to other related concepts one after the other.