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Transcript of Partition
1947: Creation of India (Hindu, Sikh),
Arbitrary, outdated borders
Pakistan created from 24% of land;
receives only 18% of wealth
Mass migration (15 million+)
Mass death (1 million est.)
Indo-Pakistani War (First Kashmir War) Remembering
Post-WWII: Britain, devastated by war,
cannot afford to manage India
1930s: Discussion of separate Muslim state Pre-pre-history
British East India Company (1757-1858)
British Crown (1858-1947) Aftermath
Bangladesh created in 1971
Sikh minority in India memory:
feminine site history:
masculine site Sikhism Monotheistic
Dates from 15th century
Founded by Guru Nanak Dev
Worship in gurdwaras
2% of Indian population, most in Punjab
26 million worldwide > religion and the nation
Confucianism in Singapore
Islam in Malaysia
> gender and the nation
overseas Filipina workers
women in India In each case, the nation essentializes its population according to its political needs.
"Singaporeans are implicit Confucians."
"Malaysia's Islamic-based economy is opposed to the west."
"Filipina workers must police themselves abroad." Alternative forms of identity and community:
Pham Thi Hoai, "Nine Down Makes Ten"
Sex workers in Thailand 19th c./ early 20th c. Indian nationalist movement
How does it essentialize gender for political purposes?
According to "heteronormative chastity" Basu and Banerjee: "Heteronormativity"
Normalizing of gender and sexuality according to certain features:
gender difference (male/female)
------------> male as dominant and paternal;
------------> female as submissive and maternal
Orientalism and imperialism may be regarded as heteronormative:
The masculine west has duty to take care of and develop feminine Orient.
ex. Kubla Khan, political cartoons, M. Butterfly Heteronormativity in India:
roots in British definitions of masculinity
adopted by Indian nationalists
represented in Indian literature, incl. by women industrialization and urbanization feminized British men
restore masculinity through imperial adventures
male Indian servants regarded as effeminate The Bengali alas is always pathetic,
Eats, dresses, slumbers, and guards his domestic,
Should you give him a meal—no matter trash or treat,
That instant he’s your slave and falls at your feet!
So why does he worship those red feet with flowers?
Abandon your lion-riding, in these parts
Should such a breed worship you, who will then be porters? Vivekananda was a similar advocate of
manliness. He bemoaned the effeminacy of Indians and urged Indians to overcome their “woman-like” nature and become men:
“No more weeping, but stand on your feet and be men.”
> for women:
“housekeeping, cooking, sewing, hygiene. … It is not good to let them touch novels and fictions" Apurba represents the effeminate Bengali: nonmartial, cowardly, unpatriotic, treacherous, and lacking chivalry
Apurba is the reason for India’s enslavement.
If Apurba is an unworthy patriot, then Sabyasachi is a true one. He bears a warrior’s name, embodies martial prowess, and is physically strong. The Englishman has strong fists while the Bengali is weak, but it seems that the fi re of heroism is slowly animating the new Bengali so that he will not fear the fists of an Englishman. I will not accept that the Bengalis cannot be muscular.
It may be possible that our weather may be partially responsible for our lack of muscular strength, but I do not believe this completely. The main reason for this weakness is our lack of exercise. If we exercise we can overcome the shortcomings of our weather as proven by the master “lathial."
This fast disappearing Bengali animal has created a muscular body through constant exercise since childhood. ... If we taught our school and college boys exercise and weapon play in addition to academics, or if at least boys learnt to wield weapons at home, we would not be such a weak race. We could probably flaunt our muscular glory. What ideas are being communicated in
these films? Scenery
Perspective "Zanjeer" Nationalism
Freedom 1970s Bollywood Films "This friendship is one I will never break.
Even if I break it, I will never leave your side.
We eat and drink together, we die and live together, all of our lives.
I will play with lives.
For you I will become everyone’s enemy."