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Paul Moran

on 17 December 2013

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Energy System Responses
BTEC Level 3: Sport and Exercise Sciences
Creatine Phosphate System (ATP-PCr)
Anaerobic (Fast) Glycolysis
ATP and creatine phosphate (also called phosphocreatine or PCr for short) make up the ATP-PCr system.

PCr is broken down by an enzyme called creatine kinase to form P + Cr during muscular contraction to produce energy.

Creatine Phosphate is broken down releasing a phosphate and energy.

This extra phosphate is then used to rebuild ATP. ATP is rebuilt by adding a phosphate to ADP.
Lactic Acid System
Fast glycolysis = If the final product of glycolysis is lactic acid. (Anaerobic)

Slow glycolysis = The process that leads to pyruvate being funnelled through the Krebs cycle. (Aerobic)

As its name would suggest the fast glycolisis system can produce energy at a greater rate than slow glycolysis.

However, because the end product of fast glycolysis is lactic acid, it can quickly accumulate and is thought to lead to muscular fatigue.
Lactic Acid System
Anaerobic glycolysis = If the final product of glycolysis is lactic acid.

Happens when there is a shortage of oxygen (O2).

Anaerobic glycolysis is used in tissue that has high energy requirements or an insufficient oxygen supply.
Anaerobic (Fast) Glycolysis
Normal pH of a muscle cell = 7.1.

If H+ continues to build up and pH is reduced to 6.5, muscle contraction is impaired.
Lactic Acid System
The ATP-PCr energy system doesnt rely on the presence of oxygen - anaerobic.

During the first 5 seconds of exercise regardless of intensity, the ATP-PCr is relied on almost exclusively.

ATP-PCr system can sustain all-out exercise for 3-15 seconds and it is during this time that the potential rate for power output is at its greatest.

If activity continues beyond this immediate period, the body must rely on another energy system to produce ATP.
Creatine Phosphate System (ATP-PCr)
Once creatine phosphate has been used up within the muscle, ATP must be resynthesized using another substance – GLYCOGEN.

Carbohydrate is eaten in the form of sugar or starch and is stored in the muscles and the liver as glycogen.
Lactic Acid System
The breaking down of a glucose molecule to produce energy is known as GLYCOLYSIS.

The end product of glycolysis is pyruvic acid.

Pyruvic acid can then be either funnelled through a process called the Krebs cycle……
converted into lactic acid.
Glycolysis = Pyruvic Acid and Hydrogen Ions (H+).
Too many H+ make the muscle cells acidic.
This interferes muscle cell operation.
Molecules called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) remove the H+.
NAD+ is reduced to form NADH.
NADH deposits the H+ during the electron transport chain.
This H+ Combines with oxygen to form water.
If there is insufficient oxygen, NADH cannot release the H+.
They build up in the cell.
To prevent an increase in acidity, pyruvic acid accepts H+.
This forms lactic acid, which then disassociates into Lactate and H+.
Some of the lactate diffuses into the blood stream.
Anaerobic (Fast) Glycolysis
Anaerobic (Fast) Glycolysis
Learning Objectives
explain the process behind each method of ATP production
describe the different systems for ATP production
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